Về quản lý môi trường
- Giám sát tác động của quá trình đô thị hóa và nguy cơ lũ lụt đối với các dịch vụ hệ sinh thái vùng cát.
- Các yếu tố ảnh hưởng đến nồng độ PM2.5 gần đây tại Trung Quốc và Hàn Quốc từ 2016 đến 2020.
- Tác động của đại dịch COVID-19 đối với lượng khí thải carbon thể hiện trong thương mại toàn cầu.
- Xem xét khía cạnh môi trường của triển vọng phức tạp kinh tế và các công nghệ liên quan đến môi trường ở các quốc gia Bắc Âu.
- Dự đoán tác động của đại dịch COVID-19 đối với toàn cầu hóa.
- Đánh giá lý thuyết và phân tích về thành phố xanh thông minh.
- Những thay đổi về phát thải khí nhà kính từ việc cung cấp thực phẩm ở Vương quốc Anh.
- Phân tích động của chuỗi cung ứng carbon thấp thị trường kép: Xem xét sự can thiệp của chính phủ và thúc đẩy chung.
- Biến dạng thị trường lao động và ô nhiễm không khí: Một phân tích thực nghiệm dựa trên mô hình hiệu ứng không gian.
- Tiêu thụ năng lượng tái tạo có cải thiện hiệu quả môi trường ở 121 quốc gia không? Vấn đề bất bình đẳng thu nhập.
Về môi trường đô thị
- Ô nhiễm vi nhựa ở các con sông của một thành phố đô thị và sự phụ thuộc ước tính của nó vào vùng đất phát triển xung quanh.
- Lượng khí thải carbon của các tòa nhà sử dụng năng lượng thấp ở Vương quốc Anh: Tác động của việc giảm thiểu các lộ trình công nghệ và chiến lược khử cacbon.
- Đánh giá rủi ro nội thành về thương tật và bệnh nghề nghiệp liên quan đến khí hậu hiện tại và dự báo: Bằng chứng từ ba thành phố lớn nhất của Úc.
- Xerogel carbon pha tạp Fe có hàm lượng graphit cao làm chất xúc tác điện Fenton chức năng kép để phân hủy tetracycline trong nước thải.
- Rủi ro nhập viện và chi phí vượt mức cho các triệu chứng thần kinh do tiếp xúc lâu dài với vật chất hạt mịn ở Bang New York, Hoa Kỳ.
- Sóng nhiệt, ôzôn và số giờ nắng ảnh hưởng đến việc nhập viện cấp cứu các bệnh nội tiết và chuyển hóa như thế nào? Một trường hợp nghiên cứu ở khu vực Madrid (Tây Ban Nha).
- Tàu điện ngầm và lượng khí thải CO2: Một phân tích toàn cầu với dữ liệu vệ tinh.
- Rác trên lít - Hình thái học của các hồ và chỉ số đô thị hóa bờ biển là các yếu tố gây ô nhiễm vi nhựa: Nghiên cứu về 30 hồ ở NE Ba Lan.
- Các khu đô thị là nguồn gây ô nhiễm nước ngầm N,N-dimethylsulfamide (N,N-DMS) và 1,2,4-triazole.
- Đánh giá lợi ích của việc làm mát đô thị dựa trên hệ sinh thái bằng phương pháp "tại chỗ” năng động.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
- Những hiểu biết cơ học về mối quan hệ cấu trúc-hoạt động của FeS để loại bỏ asen trong nước thải có tính axit mạnh.
- Hiểu biết phân tử về chất hữu cơ hòa tan của nước thải thuộc da tại nhà máy xử lý nước thải khu công nghiệp thuộc da.
- Khử cacbon cho ngành công nghiệp xi măng và bê tông: Đánh giá có hệ thống về các hệ thống kỹ thuật xã hội, đổi mới công nghệ và các lựa chọn chính sách.
- Đánh giá puzolan xử lý sinh thái bền vững (EPP) từ ngành công nghiệp dầu cọ như một chất thay thế tro bay trong bê tông geopolymer.
- Khung lý thuyết trò chơi cho các ngành công nghiệp bao bì mới và tái chế sau tiêu dùng.
- Các giải pháp dựa vào thiên nhiên tại các khu hậu công nghiệp: Đánh giá tích hợp về giảm ô nhiễm khí quyển và hấp thụ carbon tại một thành phố của Đức.
- Tối ưu hóa quá trình phân hủy kỵ khí và hòa tan bùn sinh học từ ngành công nghiệp xenlulô kraft bằng cách sử dụng phương pháp thủy phân nhiệt làm tiền xử lý.
- Thực hành tái chế chất thải điện tử không chính thức và ô nhiễm môi trường ở Châu Phi: Con đường phía trước là gì?
- Thu hồi có chọn lọc caprolactam từ quá trình chuyển đổi xúc tác nhiệt của chất thải dệt may trên các chất xúc tác kim loại được hỗ trợ bởi γ-Al2O3.
- Xử lý đốt điện nước thải ngành nội thất.
- Kim loại nặng (dạng) trong đất nông nghiệp, gạo và lúa mì trên khắp Trung Quốc: Đánh giá hiện trạng và phân tích không gian-thời gian.
- Định lượng vi hạt nhựa trong hệ thống nước thải của các khu công nghiệp và nhà máy xử lý nước thải của Đức.
Một tác phẩm của CLB Lớp vẽ Mùa Xuân tham gia dự thi Cuộc thi Vẽ tranh Vì môi trường tương lai lần thứ 4 - 2023
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Monitoring the effects of urbanization and flood hazards on sandy ecosystem services
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 163271
Urbanization, storms, and floods have compromised the benefits derived from various types of sand dune landscapes, particularly in developing countries located in humid monsoon tropical regions. One pertinent question is which driving forces have had a dominant impact on the contributions of sand dune ecosystems to human well-being. Has the decline in sand dune ecosystem services (ES) been primarily due to urbanization or flooding hazards? This study aims to address these issues by developing a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) to analyze six different sand dune landscapes worldwide. The study uses various data types, including multi-temporal and -sensor remote sensing (SAR and optical data), expert knowledge, statistics, and GIS to analyze the trends in sand dune ecosystems. A support tool based on probabilistic approaches was developed to assess changes in ES over time due to the effects of urbanization and flooding. The developed BBN has the potential to assess the ES values of sand dunes during both rainy and dry seasons. The study calculated and tested the ES values in detail over six years (from 2016 to 2021) in Quang Nam province, Vietnam. The results showed that urbanization has led to an increase in the total ES values since 2016, while floods only had a minimal impact on dune ES values during the rainy season. The fluctuations of ES values were found to be more significant due to urbanization than floods. The study's approach can be useful in future research on coastal ecosystems.
2. Regional CO2 accounting and market layout of incinerator fly ash management in China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 881, 10 July 2023, 163336
The reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from solid waste incinerator fly ash (IFA) management attracts growing interests since China's zero-waste plan and carbon peak/neutral goals. Herein, provincial GHG emissions from four demonstrated IFA reutilization technologies in China were estimated after analyzing IFA spatial-temporal distribution. Results indicate that technologies transition (landfilling-to-reutilization) could reduce GHG except for glassy slag production. IFA to cement option could potentially realize negative GHG emissions. Spatial GHG variation drivers in IFA management were recognized as provincial-different IFA composition and power emission factors. IFA management options were recommended provincially after weighting local development goals related to GHG reduction and economic benefits. Baseline scenario analysis shows that China's IFA industry would reach carbon peak in 2025 (5.02 Mt). 2030's GHG reduction potential (6.12 Mt) is equivalent to that of absorbed CO2 by 340 million trees annually. Overall, this research could contribute to illustrating future market layout complying with carbon peaking.
3. Factors affecting recent PM2.5 concentrations in China and South Korea from 2016 to 2020
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 881, 10 July 2023, 163524
This study used observational data and a chemical transport model to investigate the contributions of several factors to the recent change in air quality in China and South Korea from 2016 to 2020. We focused on observational data analysis, which could reflect the annual trend of emission reduction and adjust existing emission amounts to apply it into a chemical transport model. The observation data showed that the particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations during winter 2020 decreased by −23.4 % (−14.68 μg/m3) and − 19.5 % (−5.73 μg/m3) in China and South Korea respectively, compared with that during winter 2016. Meteorological changes, the existing national plan for a long-term emission reduction target, and unexpected events (i.e., Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China and South Korea and the newly introduced special winter countermeasures in South Korea from 2020) are considered major factors that may affect the recent change in air quality. The impact of different meteorological conditions on PM2.5 concentrations was assessed by conducting model simulations by fixing the emission amounts; the results indicated changes of +7.6 % (+4.77 μg/m3) and + 9.7 % (+2.87 μg/m3) in China and South Korea, respectively, during winter 2020 compared to that during winter 2016. Due to the existing and pre-defined long-term emission control policies implemented in both countries, PM2.5 concentration significantly decreased from winter 2016–2020 in China (−26.0 %; −16.32 μg/m3) and South Korea (−9.1 %; −2.69 μg/m3). The unexpected COVID-19 outbreak caused the PM2.5 concentrations in China to decrease during winter 2020 by another −5.0 % (−3.13 μg/m3). In South Korea, the winter season special reduction policy, which was introduced and implemented in winter 2020, and the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to −19.5 % (−5.92 μg/m3) decrease in PM2.5 concentrations.
4. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on global trade-embodied carbon emissions
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 408, 1 July 2023, 137042
We evaluate the response of global supply chains to carbon emissions through compiling multi-regional input-output (MRIO) models for import and export shocks in 14 countries/territories dominated by the COVID-19 crisis. Instead of traditional production-based inventories, we achieve CO2 emissions inventories based on intermediate inputs and final consumption to analyze the connected environmental impacts. In addition, we adopt the available data up to date to construct inventories of carbon emissions involved in imports and exports from different sectors. The results show that global carbon emissions could be decreased by 6.01% during the COVID-19, while export carbon emissions remained basically unchanged. As a result, imported carbon emissions fell by 5.2%, with the energy products sector most affected by the pandemic. Transport sector witnessed 18.42% carbon emission reduction. The impact of developing countries with a large proportion of resource-based industries is comparatively higher than that of developed countries with the technological advantage. International trade plays a crucial role in the choice of supply chain partners to control carbon emissions. Building a sustainable supply chain and reducing the "trade carbon deficit” between countries/regions requires the coordination of all departments of each country/region to promote the trade of energy-saving products, environmental protection services and environmental services.
5. Examining the environmental aspect of economic complexity outlook and environmental-related technologies in the Nordic states
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 408, 1 July 2023, 137154
Understanding the outlook of countries' economic complexity is vital for assessing the future of industries' product characterization. It provides opportunity and insight on how to mitigate the negative externalities that arises from the increasing pressure on the ecosystem. Based on this account, the effect of economic complexity and the corresponding outlook on environmental degradation vis-a-vis greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions alongside other environmental indicators are examined for the panel of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden for the period 1995 to 2020. After employing Driscoll- Kraay's standard errors for random effect (RE) with individual effects for the examination, the results indicate that the region's level of economic complexity favors environmental sustainability. Contrarily, the economic complexity outlook spurs GHG emissions, thus suggesting that future performance of the region's economic complexity could be detrimental to its ecosystem. Another similar, and undesirable observation is that the increase in urban population hampers environmental quality as it causes a surge in GHG emissions. Meanwhile, the results then conclude that economic growth, economic complexity, and environmental-related technologies are found to be potent drivers of environmental sustainability as the indicators exert negative pressure on GHG emissions in the Nordic region. Important policies that potentially guide immediate, and future sector-wide activities toward enhancing the region's sustainable development programs are posited through the study outcome.
6. Predicting the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on globalization
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 409, 10 July 2023, 137173
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly influenced the global economy, international travel, global supply chains, and how people interact, and subsequently affect globalization in coming years. In order to understand the impact of COVID-19 on globalization and provide potential guidance to policymakers, the present study predicted the globalization level of the world average and 14 specific countries in scenarios with and without COVID-19 based on a new Composite Indicator method which contains 15 indicators. Our results revealed that the world average globalization level is expected to decrease from 2017 to 2025 under the scenario without COVID-19 by −5.99%, while the decrease of globalization under the COVID-19 scenario is predicted to reach −4.76% in 2025. This finding implies that the impact of COVID-19 on globalization will not be as severe as expected in 2025. Nevertheless, the downward trend of globalization without COVID-19 is due to the decline of the Environmental indicators, whereas the decline under the COVID-19 scenario is attributed to Economic aspects (almost −50%). The impact of COVID-19 on globalization varies across individual countries. Among the countries investigated, COVID-19 had a positive impact on the globalization of Japan, Australia, the United States, the Russian Federation, Brazil, India and Togo. In contrast, the globalization in the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Qatar, Egypt, China and Gabon are expected to decrease. The variation of impact induced by COVID-19 on those countries is attributed to the weighting of economic, environmental and political aspects of globalization is different across these countries. Our results can help governments take suitable measures to balance economic, environmental and political policies, which may better support their decision-making.
7. Quantifying the spatiotemporal dynamics and impact factors of China's county-level carbon emissions using ESTDA and spatial econometric models
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 410, 15 July 2023, 137203
China currently has the largest total CO2 emissions and is one of the countries that has made the most efforts to cut these. Anthropogenic emissions from county-level districts play a pivotal role in meeting carbon neutral due to the favorable breakdown of reduction targets into sub-national units, whereas limited work has been done related to those features and determinants. Here, we attempted to quantify the spatiotemporal dynamics of county carbon emissions and their drivers in China between 2000 and 2020 using an exploratory space-time data analysis (ESTDA) and spatial econometric method based on a remote sensing image inversion dataset. The results showed that emissions per capita and per unit of GDP in Chinese counties took on drastically opposite stances amid a trend of increasing carbon emissions. Meanwhile, their carbon emissions exhibited a pronounced regional disparity and spatially positive autocorrelation, characterized by sharp spatial heterogeneity and clustering. Local indicators of spatial association implied that the patterns of county carbon emissions had certain spatial integration, and that locally correlated forms were represented by deep path dependence and spatial locking effects. Besides, a range of panel regression models provided evidence of endogenous interactions of county carbon emissions, notably where every 1% increase in the neighboring emissions induced a local emissions increase by at least 0.4%. Various factors employed not only exerted a direct impact on local carbon emissions, but had spatial spillover effects on neighboring districts. Of these, economic level and industrial structure presented a significantly positive relationship with carbon emissions, while population clustering, financial input and technological advance had clear inhibitory effects. Our findings cast fresh light on the importance of the socioeconomic diversity of a district and its neighbors for government policy decisions related to carbon abatement at the county level.
8. Theoretical and analytical assessment of smart green cities
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 410, 15 July 2023, 137315
As a locus of technological innovation, a smart city (SC) is a prototypical city of the future. Moreover, according to scholars, a smart city is also sustainable city. Nonetheless, the environmental aspects of urban sustainability are often de-emphasized in favor of discourses around the technical characteristics of SC technologies. In order to integrate the two, the article introduces the notion of a smart green city (SGC) in which technological means and environmental outcomes are in sustainable balance. SGC is presented here as a unifying concept integrating smart city and green city concepts through the environmental, social, and governance (ESG) framework. To illustrate the positive synergy between a city's greenness and smartness, we derive operational definitions of both based on the online media's attention to the related technology and sustainability initiatives. After calculating the two indices for all the cities worldwide with over one million inhabitants (498 cities), regression analysis is performed to determine the strength and direction of the relationships between a city's greenness and smartness. We find that a city's greenness is positively related to its smartness. Principal component analysis reveals a potential relationship between a city's population and the two indices. In particular, a large city's population negatively affects its greenness but positively affects its smartness. A joint index of smartness and greenness is negatively related to a city's population. Hence, the containment of uncontrolled urban growth is critical for successfully implementing SGC initiatives. The analysis results are of use to policy-makers, city managers, and planners intending to integrate the ESG framework into their future urban development strategies. Moreover, to our knowledge, a joint evaluation of a city's greenness and smartness has never been performed before on the inter-regional level of analysis. Accordingly, such a holistic assessment can be of methodological interest to scholars of smart and sustainable cities.
9. Changes in greenhouse gas emissions from food supply in the United Kingdom
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 410, 15 July 2023, 137273
Food systems contribute 23–42% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Reducing food system emissions is an essential component of climate change mitigation, and a system-wide approach, including production, processing, trade and demand-side transformations, will be needed. Long-term analysis of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of food supply is crucial for informing this transformation, and understanding the processes contributing to existing trends can reveal opportunities for future mitigation strategies. To address these needs we used data on food supply, trade and emission intensity to quantify changes in GHG emissions between 1986 and 2017 resulting from food supply in the United Kingdom (UK). Uniquely, the relative contributions of supply-side and demand-side changes to historical trends in food emissions were assessed, and the gap between current UK food consumption and EAT-Lancet recommended diets was used to estimate the additional GHG emission reductions that could be achieved by shifting to the Planetary Health Diet (PHD). It was estimated that in the UK, per-capita GHG emissions from food fell by 32% (from 4.6 tCO2eq/capita to 3.1 tCO2eq/capita) between 1986 and 2017. Of this 32% reduction, 21% was due to supply-side changes (a fall in emission intensity per unit of production due to increased efficiency of farming practices), 10% was due to demand-side changes (including dietary change and waste reduction), and 2% was due to changing trade patterns. Relative to the PHD, however, the average UK citizen still greatly over-consumes beef, lamb and pork, tubers and starchy vegetables and dairy products, and under-consumes vegetables, nuts, and legumes. It was estimated that by adopting the PHD, UK per capita food emissions could be reduced by a further 42% to 1.8 tCO2eq/capita. These results expose the historic contributions of both supply- and demand-side changes to reductions in GHG emissions from food, and highlight the underutilised potential of dietary change in contributing to mitigation of GHG emissions from food.
10. The evolving policy network in sustainable transitions: The case of new energy vehicle niche in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 411, 20 July 2023, 137299
Policy has been the driving force behind the rapid development of China's new energy vehicle (NEV) industry. However, the policy network that supports NEV development has been underexplored. This paper explores NEV as an innovative niche for sustainable transition and investigates the evolutionary mechanism of its policy network by combining insights from policy network, strategic niche management and technology innovation system (TIS) theories. Operationally, this paper adopted a social network analysis method to study the NEV policy network in various niche development stages consisting of 377 NEV policy documents formulated by government agencies between 2000 and 2021. Results show the NEV policy network evolves towards bigger, newer actors and is more heterogeneous in creating joint efforts in policymaking that promotes niche development and facilitates a transition to a market niche. Specifically, the policy network expands continually, and network density reaches the maximum of 0.635 at the end of the technological niche. Six agencies are identified as dominators in NEV policymaking. Collaboration on NEV policymaking exhibits obvious organisational heterogeneity, especially in the market niche with an E-I value of 0.576. This study enhances understanding of the evolutionary patterns of policy network and its function on supporting TIS development for immaturely sustainable technologies. The findings also provide important insights into the NEV policymaking process.
11. Dynamic analysis of dual-market low-carbon supply chain: Considering government intervention and joint promotion
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 411, 20 July 2023, 137361
The increasingly severe global environmental problems have urged most people to incorporate environmental protection into their daily lives. Therefore, low-carbon supply chain management has become crucial. This paper studies a dual-market low-carbon supply chain operation in urban and rural markets with one manufacturer and two retailers. Three scenarios are considered: no government intervention, government intervention and joint promotion under government intervention. By establishing and solving three differential game models, we give the dynamic technological innovation, advertising and store promotion strategies of the manufacturer and two retailers and show the impact of government intervention and joint promotion on emissions reduction and performance. The results show that: first, government intervention can increase technology innovation efforts and decrease advertising efforts, while joint store promotion under government intervention has a positive effect on manufacturer's advertising and technological innovation efforts; second, government intervention may increase the profits of the manufacturer, although it will undoubtedly reduce the profits of the retailers, while joint store promotion under government intervention can further improve the profits of the manufacturer and retailers; third, compared to the preferences of rural consumers, manufacturer's technological innovation strategy relies more on the price and promotion preferences of urban consumers. Moreover, the preference differences between the two types of consumers have a weak impact on the manufacturer's advertising strategy, while the price preference of rural consumers has a more significant impact on the advertising efforts of the manufacturer. Overall, the research results can provide valuable suggestions for the members of the low-carbon supply chain in the dual market to improve the economic and environmental performance of the low-carbon supply chain.
12. Rapid decline of carbon monoxide emissions in the Fenwei Plain in China during the three-year Action Plan on defending the blue sky
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 337, 1 July 2023, 117735
The Fenwei Plain is one of China’s most polluted regions, with poor atmospheric dispersion conditions and an outdated energy structure. After implementing multiple policies in recent years, significant reductions in air pollutant concentrations were observed. In this study, based on the Lagrangian-Bayesian inversion framework FLEXINVERT, we constructed a variable resolution inversion system focusing on the Fenwei Plain and inferred the carbon monoxide (CO) emissions using in-situ atmospheric CO observations from April 2014 to March 2020. We analyzed the spatiotemporal variations of the CO emissions and discussed their causes, especially the effect of the "Three-year Action Plan on Defending the Blue Sky” (TAPDBS). Before the policy, CO emissions temporarily increased, and the overall decrease in CO emissions per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) slowed down. When the policy was implemented, CO emission fluxes declined sharply, with an average drop of 28%, accompanied by an even higher 37% decrease of CO emission per GDP. The reasons for the decline in CO emissions in Shanxi, Shaanxi and Henan are diverse. The decrease in energy intensity is the reason for CO emission reduction in Shannxi and Henan province but not in Shanxi province. This research fills the gap in emission information in recent years and confirms that TAPDBS has brought a breakthrough in both economic development and air quality protection in the Fenwei Plain.
13. Labor market distortion and air pollution: An empirical analysis based on spatial effect modeling
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 337, 1 July 2023, 117743
In China, along with the rapid development of economy, air pollution has become a hot issue of public concern, particularly in many cities. The distortion in the labor factor market can cause air pollution, but the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. To investigate this question, this article examines the effect of labor market distortion on air pollution focusing on SO2 emissions based on data of China's 283 cities during 2003–2015. The main objectives are to examine the direct and spillover effects of labor market distortion on air pollution using panel fixed-effects models, including the spatial Durbin model and the mediated-effects model. Results show that labor market distortion directly aggravates air pollution in cities. Mechanism analysis suggests that labor market distortion incurs air pollution through mechanisms of suppressing technological progress, hindering the upgrading of industrial structure, and reducing the efficiency of energy use. Divided the cities by their locations into those in eastern, central, and western regions, we find that such unfavorable effects are more prominent in eastern and western regions of the country. These findings highlight the impetus of mitigating the distorted labor market to ameliorate air quality and promote sustainable development.
14. Characteristics, sources and influencing factors of atmospheric deposition of microplastics in three different ecosystems of Beijing, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 883, 20 July 2023, 163567
As the research on microplastics (MPs) has intensified, more attention has been paid to MPs deposition in the atmosphere. This study further explores and compares the characteristics, the possible sources and influencing factors of deposition of MPs in three different ecosystems: forest, agricultural and residential area in Beijing. It was found that the deposited plastics were mostly white or black fibres, with PET and RY as the main MPs types. The range of deposition fluxes was 67.06–461.02 item·m−2·d−1, with highest deposition in residential area and lowest in forest, significant differences in MPs characteristics between environments. Based on MPs composition and shape, combined with backward trajectory analysis, the main sources of MPs were found to be textiles. Deposition of MPs was found to be influenced by environmental and meteorological factors. Factors such as gross domestic product and population density had a significant impact on the deposition flux, while wind played a diluting role for atmospheric MPs. The study investigated the characteristics of MPs in different ecosystems which may help to understand the transport patterns of MPs and is of great importance for the management of MPs pollution.
15. Does renewable energy consumption improve environmental efficiency in 121 countries? A matter of income inequality
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 882, 15 July 2023, 163471
Renewable energy is a key component of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set by the United Nations, and is an important factor in facilitating the energy transition and carbon neutrality of countries. This study aims to examine the interaction between renewable energy consumption and carbon efficiency to achieve the goal of carbon reduction for environmental sustainability. This study measures the carbon efficiency globally and countries in each income group through the data envelopment analysis method. Then, this study empirically analyzes the impact of renewable energy consumption on carbon efficiency by controlling for heterogeneity, cross-sectional dependence and generalized moments estimation. The results show that (1) carbon efficiency enhances with the increase of income level, and the global carbon efficiency improvement is mainly due to the change of technological progress. (2) There is a weak improvement in scale efficiency in LI and LMI, dragged down by the decline in pure technical efficiency, which is the opposite of countries at higher income levels. (3) Renewable energy consumption has a positive effect on the improvement of carbon efficiency at all income levels, and there is a two-way causal relationship between renewable energy consumption and carbon efficiency. The effect of renewable energy on carbon efficiency is most significant in countries with middle income levels. Policy makers in each country should promote the renewable energy development to achieve energy transition and reduce carbon emissions. In addition, this study emphasizes that countries should consider the interaction between the renewable energy consumption and income level in ensuring sustainable development.
16. Exploring the coupling coordination relationship between eco-environment and renewable energy development in rural areas: A case of China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 163229
China's rural need an energy transition to achieve the goal of "carbon neutrality”. However, renewable energy development will bring about great changes in rural supply and demand. Therefore, the spatial-temporal coupling coordination relationship between rural renewable energy and the eco-environment needs to be re-examined. Firstly, the study analyzed the coupling mechanism based on the rural renewable energy system. Secondly, the evaluation indicator system of rural renewable energy development and eco-environment was constructed respectively. Finally, a coupling coordination degree (CCD) model was established based on 2-tuple linguistic gray correlation multi-criteria decision-making, prospect theory and coupling theory. The results show that the coupling coordination presented an evolutionary trend from low to high levels from 2005 to 2019. Under the influence of energy policies, it was predicted that the average CCD in China will increase from 0.52 to 0.55 by 2025. In addition, the CCD and external influencing factors of provinces varied widely under different times and spaces. Each province should promote the coordinated development of eco-environment and rural renewable energy with their advantages of resources and economy.
17. The role of environmental pollutants in body composition: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Environmental Research, Volume 228, 1 July 2023, 115840
The effects of environmental pollution are associated with higher rates of mortality, morbidity, and years of life lost. It is known that these produce alterations in the human body, including changes in body composition. Research has focused on the association between contaminants and BMI through cross-sectional studies. The objective of this study was to synthesize the evidence for the association of pollutants on different measures of body composition. The PECOS strategy was defined, in which "P": participants of any age, sex, or ethnicity, "E": a higher level of environmental pollution, "C": a lower level of environmental pollution, "O": body composition measurements and "S": longitudinal studies. Studies from the following databases were included: MEDLINE, EMBASE, SciELO, LILACS, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and gray literature from inception to January 2023.3069 studies were identified, 18 were included in the systematic review, and 13 in the meta-analysis. These studies included 8.563 people, 47 environmental contaminants, and 16 measures of body composition. The meta-analysis by subgroup found that the association between dioxins, furans, PCBs, and waist circumference was β = 1.0 (95% CI: 0.85 to 1.16; I2: 95%), and the sum of four skinfolds β = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.88 to 1.16; I2: 24%). The association between pesticides and waist circumference was β = 1.00 (95% CI: 0.68 to 1.32; I2: 98%), and the fat mass was β = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.17 to 1.81; I2: 94%). Pollutants, especially endocrine-disrupting chemicals, among which dioxins, furans, PCBs, and pesticides, are associated with changes in body composition, mainly with waist circumference and the sum of four skinfolds.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Microplastics pollution in the rivers of a metropolitan city and its estimated dependency on surrounding developed land
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 163268
The spatial distribution and abundance of suspected microplastics (SMPs) in the surface water of a metropolitan city, as represented by four Hong Kong rivers, was studied during the dry season. Shing Mun River (SM), Lam Tsuen River (LT), and Tuen Mun River (TM) are located in urbanized areas, and SM and TM are tidal rivers. The fourth river, Silver River (SR) is situated in a rural area. TM had a significantly higher SMP abundance (53.80 ± 20.67 n/L) than the other rivers. The SMP abundance increased from upstream to downstream in non-tidal rivers (LT and SR), but not in tidal rivers (TM and SM), probably due to the tidal influence and a more homogeneous urban development along the tidal rivers. Inter-site differences in the SMP abundance were strongly correlated with the built area ratio (defined as the percentage of surrounding developed land area), human activities, and the nature of the river. About half (48.72 %) of the SMPs were <250 μm. Fibers and fragments were most abundant (>98 %), with most of them being transparent (58.54 %), black (14.68 %), or blue (12.12 %). Polyethylene terephthalate (26.96 %) and polyethylene (20.70 %) were the most common polymers. However, the MP abundance could be overestimated due to the presence of natural fibers. By contrast, an underestimation of the MP abundance could result from a smaller volume of water samples collected, due to a low filtration efficiency caused by high organic content and particle concentrations in the water. A more effective solid waste management strategy and upgrading of the sewage treatment facilities for removing microplastics are recommended to ameliorate the microplastic pollution in local rivers.
2. Extreme flood in Pakistan: Is Pakistan paying the cost of climate change? A short communication
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 162973
Global warming is one of the foremost causes of changes in climate patterns around the world. Pakistan is among the top ten countries affected by global warming. Today, Pakistan is facing severe consequences of global warming in the form of an extreme flood. It affected 33 million people, destroyed 1.5 million homes, and caused $2.3 billion in crop damage. It has also damaged more than 2000 km of roads, cutting off connectivity to provinces and major cities. Thus, inflation in Pakistan has reached its highest level, i.e. 26 % – 27 %, and a severe food crisis is not far away. Recently, Pakistan noted a record temperature of 40 °C in several territories, notably 51 °C in Jacobabad. The study reported that high temperatures, melting glaciers, heavy monsoon rains, government inattention, and poor governance are the key reasons of this severe flood. Moreover, in 2080, the average temperature in Pakistan is predicted to increase by 4.38 degrees Celsius. The study suggested that Supply of cheap seeds and fertilizers to farmers, maintenance of water supply infrastructure, availability of food and medicines through domestic and foreign assistance, and reduction of electricity rates and taxes in flood-affected areas can be the solution to stop this crisis. Similarly, building dams, investing in technology and training, and educating the general public about environmental change should be included in the long-term goals to avoid future disasters.
3. Carbon footprint of low-energy buildings in the United Kingdom: Effects of mitigating technological pathways and decarbonization strategies
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 882, 15 July 2023, 163490
There is a limited comprehensive analysis of the effectiveness of adopted carbon mitigation strategies for buildings over their life cycle, that are concerned with temporal perspectives of emissions. Accordingly, this paper explores a life cycle assessment (LCA) to address the concerns regarding mitigating the carbon footprint of a UK timber-frame low-energy dwelling. In particular, it aims to investigate the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction in terms of three different heating and ventilation options, and to analyze the influence of decarbonization of electricity production as well as the technological progress of the waste treatment of timber on the building's environmental performance. Thus, the whole life‑carbon of the building case studies was evaluated for a total of eight investigated prospective scenarios, and they were compared to the LCA results of the baseline scenario, where the existing technology and context remained constant over time. Results show that using a compact heat pump would lead to a significant whole life-cycle emission reduction of the dwelling, by 19 %; while GHG emission savings can be reinforced if the assessed systems are employed simultaneously with grid decarbonization, exhibiting a 25 %–60 % reduction compared to the baseline scenario. Moreover, technological changes in the waste treatments of timber products could substantially reduce the buildings' embodied emissions, representing 3 %–23 %. From these emission-saving measures, the contribution of material efficiency strategies to achieve more embodied carbon savings should be highlighted in future construction practices.
4. Characterizing sources and ozone formations of summertime volatile organic compounds observed in a medium-sized city in Yangtze River Delta region
Chemosphere, Volume 328, July 2023, 138609
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from various sources into atmosphere could cause serious O3 pollution in urban areas. Although characterizations of ambient VOCs have been extensively studied in megacities, they are scarcely investigated in medium/small-sized cities, which could present different pollution characterizations due to the factors like emission sources and populations. Herein, field campaigns were conducted concurrently at six sites in a medium-sized city of Yangtze River Delta region to determine ambient levels, O3 formations and source contributions of summertime VOCs. During the observation period, the total VOC (TVOCs) mixing ratios ranged from 27.10 ± 3.35 to 39.09 ± 10.84 ppb at six sites. The ozone formation potential (OFP) results showed that alkenes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) were dominant contributors, together sharing 81.4% of total calculated OFPs. Ethene ranked the largest OFP contributor at all six sites. A high VOC site, KC, was selected as a case to detailed analyze diurnal variations of VOCs and its relationship with O3. Consequently, diurnal patterns varied with VOC groups, and TVOC concentrations were lowest during strong photochemical period (15:00–18:00 p.m.), opposite to the O3 peak. VOCs/NOx ratios and observation-based model (OBM) analysis revealed that O3 formation sensitivity was primarily in transition regime in summertime and that the reduction of VOCs rather than NOX would be more efficient to suppress O3 peak at KC during pollution episode. Additionally, source apportionment conducted with positive matrix factorization (PMF) indicated that industrial emission (29.2%–51.7%) and gasoline exhaust (22.4%–41.1%) were major sources for VOCs at all six sites, and that VOCs from industrial emissions and gasoline exhaust were the key precursors for ozone formation. Our results shed light on the importance of alkenes, aromatics and OVOCs in forming O3 and propose that preferentially reducing VOCs especially those from industrial emission and gasoline exhaust would benefit alleviating O3 pollution.
5. Heavy metals in fish, rice, and human hair and health risk assessment in Wuhan city, central China
Environmental Pollution, Volume 328, 1 July 2023, 121604
The current study investigated the concentration of heavy metals (HMs) in human hair associated with fish and rice consumption in Wuhan City, central China. The mean values of As in 8/10 fish species exceeded the food safety standard of 0.015 mg/kg. The mean values (mg/kg) of HMs in rice followed a descending order of Zn (13.7)> Cu (1.9)>Cr (0.51)>As (0.11) >Cd (0.08) >Pb (0.04). The ascending order of HMs for male hair was Cd < As < Cr < Pb < Cu < Zn, while As < Cd < Cr < Pb < Cu < Zn for female. 30% of hair Cr and 22% of hair Zn contents exceeded the recommended values. The middle age (19–44) and adult (45–59) groups were the most vulnerable group, as the concentration for most elements was high in these age groups. A significant correlation was found between fish-eating frequency and hair Zn (r = 0.213; p < 0.05), and As (r = 0.204; p < 0.05). High odd ratios were found in a population with high fish-eating frequency, especially for Pb (7.19), As (3.1), Zn (3.83), and Cd (3.7). A significant non-carcinogenic risk was associated with Cr exposure through consuming herbivores, filter feeders, and omnivorous fish. The cancer risk values of Cd exposure (1.54E-04) via rice consumption and As exposure (1.25E-04) via consumption of omnivores fish indicate precautionary measures.
6. Rapid urbanization affects microplastic communities in lake sediments: A case study of Lake Aha in southwest China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 338, 15 July 2023, 117824
Effective management of pollutants in urban environments is crucial for achieving sustainable cities. Microplastics, as an emerging pollutant widely present in contemporary environments, have received widespread attention in recent years. However, limited studies have reported the impact of rapid urbanization on regional microplastics. In this study, the abundance and composition of microplastic communities in the sediments of Lake Aha were analyzed using a "microplastic community” and slicing the sediments at 5 cm intervals. Results showed that microplastic abundance of sediments in Lake Aha was relatively high (up to 1700 items/kg) and decreased with increasing depth, with the highest abundance found in the surface layer (0–5 cm, 1090 ± 474 items/kg). Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) revealed that the different sediment layers could be classified into high and low urbanization level groups based on the composition of microplastic communities. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) indicated that agricultural input was the main source of microplastic pollution during low urbanization levels, characterized by low abundance, large particle size, and high fiber proportion, while urban activities dominated during high urbanization levels, with high abundance, small particle size, high proportion of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), fragments, and granules, and colorful microplastics. This study clarifies the impact of urbanization on the abundance and composition of microplastics in lake sediments, which has implications for more effective management and control of microplastic pollution in regions undergoing rapid urbanization.
7. Intra-urban risk assessment of occupational injuries and illnesses associated with current and projected climate: Evidence from three largest Australian cities
Environmental Research, Volume 228, 1 July 2023, 115855
Increased risk of occupational injuries and illnesses (OI) is associated with ambient temperature. However, most studies have reported the average impacts within cities, states, or provinces at broader scales.
We assessed the intra-urban risk of OI associated with ambient temperature in three Australian cities at statistical area level 3 (SA3). We collected daily workers’ compensation claims data and gridded meteorological data from July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2018. Heat index was used as the primary temperature metric. We performed a two-stage time series analysis: we generated location-specific estimates using Distributed Lag Non-Linear Models (DLNM) and estimated the cumulative effects with multivariate meta-analysis. The risk was estimated at moderate heat (90th percentile) and extreme heat (99th percentile). Subgroup analyses were conducted to identify vulnerable groups of workers. Further, the OI risk in the future was estimated for two projected periods: 2016–2045 and 2036–2065.
The cumulative risk of OI was 3.4% in Greater Brisbane, 9.5% in Greater Melbourne, and 8.9% in Greater Sydney at extreme heat. The western inland regions in Greater Brisbane (17.4%) and Greater Sydney (32.3%) had higher risk of OI for younger workers, workers in outdoor and indoor industries, and workers reporting injury claims. The urbanized SA3 regions posed a higher risk (19.3%) for workers in Greater Melbourne. The regions were generally at high risk for young workers and illness-related claims. The projected risk of OI increased with time in climate change scenarios.
This study provides a comprehensive spatial profile of OI risk associated with hot weather conditions across three cities in Australia. Risk assessment at the intra-urban level revealed strong spatial patterns in OI risk distribution due to heat exposure. These findings provide much-needed scientific evidence for work, health, and safety regulators, industries, unions, and workers to design and implement location-specific preventative measures.
8. Highly graphitic Fe-doped carbon xerogels as dual-functional electro-Fenton catalysts for the degradation of tetracycline in wastewater
Environmental Research, Volume 228, 1 July 2023, 115757
Fe-doped carbon xerogels with a highly developed graphitic structure were synthesized by a one-step sol-gel polymerization. These highly graphitic Fe-doped carbons are presented as promising dual-functional electro-Fenton catalysts to perform both the electro-reduction of O2 to H2O2 and H2O2 catalytic decomposition (Fenton) for wastewater decontamination. The amount of Fe is key to the development of this electrode material, since affects the textural properties; catalyzes the development of graphitic clusters improving the electrode conductivity; and influences the O2-catalyst interaction controlling the H2O2 selectivity but, at the same time is the catalyst for the decomposition of the electrogenerated H2O2 to OH• radicals for the organic pollutants oxidation. All materials achieve the development of ORR via the 2-electron route. The presence of Fe considerably improves the electro-catalytic activity. However, a mechanism change seems to occur at around −0.5 V in highly Fe-doped samples. At potential lower than −0.5 eV, the present of Feδ+ species or even Fe–O–C active sites favour the selectivity to 2e-pathway, however at higher potentials, Feδ+ species are reduced favoring a O–O strong interaction enhancing the 4e-pathway. The Electro-Fenton degradation of tetracycline was analyzed. The TTC degradation is almost complete (95.13%) after 7 h of reaction without using any external Fenton-catalysts.
9. Hospital admission risks and excess costs for neurological symptoms attributable to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter in New York State, USA
Environmental Research, Volume 229, 15 July 2023, 115954
Although emerging evidence suggests that PM2.5 is linked to neurological symptoms (NSs) via neuroinflammation, relevant studies are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the risks and excess costs of hospital admission for five NSs—fatigue, headache, dizziness, convulsion, and paralysis—attributable to long-term exposure to PM2.5 in New York State, USA.
We analyzed the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) from 2010 to 2016. A Bayesian hierarchical model with integrated nested Laplace approximations was performed to estimate the risks and excess costs of hospital admission for NSs due to long-term exposure to PM2.5 at the county level.
A 1 μg/m3 increase in lag 0–1 years PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of headache and convulsion by 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.11) and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.06), respectively. The excess hospital admission cost for five NSs attributable to lag 0–1 years PM2.5 above the new World Health Organization guideline (annual standard: 5 μg/m3) was $200.24 (95% CI: 6.00, 376.96) million during 2011–2016, recording the highest for convulsion ($153.73 [95% CI: 63.61, 244.19] million).
This study provides quantitative estimates of risks and excess costs for NSs attributable to long-term PM2.5 and suggests that policies that reduce long-term PM2.5 concentration in accordance with the new WHO air quality guidelines can yield substantial health and economic benefits related to NSs in the New York State population.
10. How heat waves, ozone and sunlight hours affect endocrine and metabolic diseases emergency admissions? A case study in the region of Madrid (Spain)
Environmental Research, Volume 229, 15 July 2023, 116022
Studies which analyse the joint effect of acoustic or chemical air pollution variables and different meteorological variables on neuroendocrine disease are practically nonexistent. This study therefore sought to analyse the impact of air pollutants and environmental meteorological variables on daily unscheduled admissions due to endocrine and metabolic diseases in the Madrid Region from January 01, 2013 to December 31, 2018.
Material and methods
We conducted a longitudinal, retrospective, ecological study of daily time series analysed by Poisson regression, with emergency neuroendocrine-disease admissions in the Madrid Region as the dependent variable. The independent variables were: mean daily concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and O3; acoustic pollution; maximum and minimum daily temperatures; hours of sunlight; relative humidity; wind speed; and air pressure above sea level. Estimators of the statistically significant variables were used to calculate the relative risks (RRs).
A statistically significant association was found between the increase in temperatures in heat waves, RR: 1.123 95% CI (1.001–1.018), and the number of emergency admissions, making it the main risk factor. An association between a decrease in sunlight and an increase in hospital admissions, RR: 1.005 95% CI (1.002 1.008), was likewise observed. Similarly, ozone, in the form of mean daily concentrations in excess of 44 μg/m3, had an impact on admissions due to neuroendocrine disease, RR: 1.010 95% CI (1.007–1.035). The breakdown by sex showed that in the case of women, NO2 was also a risk factor, RR: 1.021 95% CI (1.007–1.035).
The results obtained in this study serve to identify risk factors for this disease, such as extreme temperatures in heat waves, O3 or NO2. The robust association found between the decrease in sunlight and increase in hospital admissions due to neuroendocrine disease serves to spotlight an environmental factor which has received scant attention in public health until now.
11. Impact assessment of urbanization on vegetation net primary productivity: A case study of the core development area in central plains urban agglomeration, China
Environmental Research, Volume 229, 15 July 2023, 115995
Rapid urbanization process has a negative or positive impact on vegetation growth. Net primary productivity (NPP) is an effective indicator to characterize vegetation growth status. Taking the core development area of the Central Plains urban agglomeration as the study area, we estimated the NPP and its change trend in the past four decades using the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model and statistical analysis based on meteorological and multi-source remote sensing data. Meanwhile, combined with the urbanization impact framework, we further analyzed urbanization's direct and indirect impact on NPP. The results showed that the urban area increased by 2688 km2 during a high-speed urbanization process from 1983 to 2019. As a result of the intense urbanization process, a continuous NPP decrease (direct impact) can be seen, which aggravated along with the acceleration of the urban expansion, and the mean value of direct impact was 130.84 g C·m−2·a−1. Meanwhile, urbanization also had a positive impact on NPP (indirect impact). The indirect impact showed an increasing trend during urbanization with a mean value of 10.91 g C·m−2·a−1. The indirect impact was mainly related to temperature in climatic factors. The indirect impact has a seasonal heterogeneity, and high-temperature environments of urban areas are more effective in promoting vegetation growth in autumn and winter than in summer. Among different cities, high-speed development cities have higher indirect impact values than medium's and low's because of better ecological construction. This study is of great significance for understanding the impact of urbanization on vegetation growth in the Central Plains urban agglomeration area, supporting urban greening plans, and building sustainable and resilient urban agglomerations.
12. Effects of multi-scale structure of blue-green space on urban forest carbon density: Beijing, China case study
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 883, 20 July 2023, 163682
Landscape structure influences the amount of carbon that can be stored in an ecosystem. Currently, majority of research have been focused on the responses of landscape structure and functional relationships to urbanization, and few have specifically focused on blue-green space. In this study, Beijing was used as a case study to explore the relationship among the blue-green spatial planning structure of green belts, green wedges and green ways, the landscape configuration of blue-green element and carbon storage of urban forest. The blue-green elements were classified using high-resolution remote sensing images (0.8 m) and the above-ground carbon storage estimations of urban forest based on 1307 field survey samples. The results show that green belts and green wedges have a higher coverage percentage of blue-green space and big blue-green patches than that of built-up areas. However, they have lower carbon density in urban forests. The shannon's diversity index of blue-green space was found to have a binary relationship with carbon density, in which, urban forests and water bodies were the key combination in increasing carbon density. The presence of water bodies in urban forests increases the carbon density to up to 1000 m. The effect of farmland and grassland on carbon density was found to be uncertain. With this, this study provides basis for sustainable planning and management of blue-green spaces.
13. Subways and CO2 emissions: A global analysis with satellite data
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 883, 20 July 2023, 163691
This paper estimates a global CO2 emissions model using satellite data at 25 km resolution. The model incorporates industrial sources (including power, steel, cement, and refineries), fires, and non-industrial population-related factors associated with household incomes and energy requirements. It also tests the impact of subways in the 192 cities where they operate. We find highly significant effects with the expected signs for all model variables, including subways. In a counterfactual exercise estimating CO2 emissions with and without subways, we find they have reduced population-related CO2 emissions by about 50 % for the 192 cities and about 11 % globally. Extending the analysis to future subways for other cities, we estimate the magnitude and social value of CO2 emissions reductions with conservative assumptions about population and income growth and a range of values for the social cost of carbon and investment costs. Even under pessimistic assumptions for these costs, we find that hundreds of cities realize a significant climate co-benefit, along with benefits from reduced traffic congestion and local air pollution, which have traditionally motivated subway construction. Under more moderate assumptions, we find that, on climate grounds alone, hundreds of cities realize high enough social rates of return to warrant subway construction.
14. Litter per liter – Lakes' morphology and shoreline urbanization index as factors of microplastic pollution: Study of 30 lakes in NE Poland
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 881, 10 July 2023, 163426
Human activity and anthropopression play key roles in contaminating aquatic environments with microplastics (MPs). The lakes of northeastern Poland provide a wide range of freshwater ecosystems differing in morphology, hydrology and ecology. In this study, we investigate 30 lakes during summer stagnation, considering their varying levels of anthropogenization of the catchment area and taking into account increased tourist activity. MPs were found in each of the studied lakes in the range from 0.27 MPs/L to 1.57 MPs/L, and the average value was 0.78 ± 0.42 MPs/L. The features of the MPs were evaluated, including size, form and color (most frequent: 4–5 mm (35.0 %); fragments (36.7 %); blue (30.6 %), respectively). Gradual accumulation of MPs has been observed in the lakes that comprise the hydrological sequence. The amount of sewage produced by wastewater treatment plants was considered in the study area. Statistically significant differences were found between lakes with different surface areas and shoreline lengths, where lakes with the highest and smallest values were notably more polluted with MPs than lakes in the medium range (F = 34.64, p < .0001 and F = 5.96, p < .01, respectively). The study presents an easy-to-obtain shoreline urbanization index (SUI) that is particularly useful for lakes with heavily transformed catchments in terms of hydrology. A significant correlation between the MP concentration and SUI, reflecting the degree of direct catchment anthropopression (r = +0.4282; p < .05), was observed. The analysis of the human impact on shoreline conversions and development should also pique the interest of other researchers as a potential indicator of MP pollution.
15. Urban areas as sources of the groundwater contaminants N,N-dimethylsulfamide (N,N-DMS) and 1,2,4-triazole
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 881, 10 July 2023, 163377
Urban pollution from biocides used in building materials has raised emerging concern within recent years. The evidence that the use of biocides can pollute urban groundwaters is very limited, but in Denmark, the common degradation product from the two fungicides tolylfluanid and dichlofluanid, N,N-DMS, is particularly abundant in groundwater within urban areas, which suggests an urban source in addition to its well-known agricultural sources. In addition, another widespread groundwater pollutant, 1,2,4-triazole, may originate from the fungicides propiconazole and tebuconazole, that are also used in outdoor paint and wood protection products. To study the potential pollution of groundwater from fungicides used in outdoor paint and wood protection products, we surveyed concentrations in groundwater in two urban areas, we tested leaching from facades and soil concentrations close to facades and fences, and in lab-experiments, we determined the fate of N,N-DMS and 1,2,4-triazole under different redox conditions in soil sampled down to 7 m below surface.
Shallow urban groundwater contained up to 1 μg/L N,N-DMS with concentrations of 0.1–0.3 μg/L below a typical Danish residential area. Despite a phase-out of tolylfluanid and dichlofluanid in paint in 2015, both compounds still wash-off wooden facades and fences and was detected in soil next to the treated wood. Much higher soil concentrations, however, were found for propiconazole and tebuconazole and their common degradation product 1,2,4-triazole, reflecting the fact that they are still in use in outdoor paint and wood protection products. 1,2,4-Triazole also leached to groundwater, but concentrations decreased sharply with depth, probably due to degradation that occurred at all tested soil depths and redox conditions. N,N-DMS, on the other hand, was not degraded in deeper soil layers or under anoxic conditions. Consequently, N,N-DMS may persist in groundwater below populated areas well into the future.
16. Evaluating the benefits of ecosystem-based urban cooling using a dynamic "on-site” method
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 162908
Ecosystem-based cooling helps residents cope with the urban heat-island problem. In order to improve the accuracy of traditional heat-island measurements based on comparisons between urban and rural areas, we use an "on-site” method developed with only urban data. The essence of this method is a regression analysis of the relationships among different types of green space and blue space, elevation, vegetation dynamics, and temperature. We then simulate the temperature pattern in a scenario where there is no built-up area (Scenario A), and then in another scenario where there are no ecological spaces (Scenario B). The gap between the actual temperature pattern and the simulated temperature pattern of Scenario A is considered the heat-island effect. Conversely, the gap between the actual temperature pattern and that of Scenario B is considered as the effect of ecosystem-based urban cooling. This method was tested using data from two megacities in China (each had a population of over 10 million people). For Beijing, the average heat-island effect was 4.87 °C and effect of the ecosystem cooling service was 9.07 °C. For Shenzhen, the respective values were 0.8 °C and 2.71 °C. The "on-site” (local small size sampling), "dynamic coefficient”, and "no-positive-coefficient rule” are the three defining characteristics of this method. The application of this method to model ecosystem-based urban cooling can aid urban planning and management in improving the residential thermal environment.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Quantification of microplastics in wastewater systems of German industrial parks and their wastewater treatment plants
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 881, 10 July 2023, 163349
Microplastics (MP) enter the aquatic environment via several pathways. Many research groups have focused on municipal discharge, while research on industrial sources is rare. This study provides one of the first insights into MP occurrence and distribution in the wastewater systems of industrial parks (IPs) and their wastewater treatment plants (IPWWTPs). The effluents from production plants as well as influent, effluent, and internal samples from the IPWWTPs were assessed. Sampling methods for parallel MP mass and number analyses were developed for varying conditions. The total item emissions of MP (≥10 μm) into the environment were analyzed using μ-Raman spectroscopy and ranged from 3 · 102 to 8 · 104 MP m−3, with a median of 6 · 103 MP m−3 per IPWWTP. Masses analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry showed an MP mass discharge into the environment of 0.2 to 11 mg m−3 with a median of 3.7 mg m−3 per IPWWTP. MP item concentrations within an IPWWTP varied by two to three log levels over several days. Fibers were rare in all samples. Polymer types varied depending on the types of industrial sites and the production plants discharging into the IPWWTP. Within an IP, MP could be allocated to its dischargers, which could be useful for future regulatory requirements. Further research is needed to include different types of IPs producing various polymers and additional processing plants to expand this data set.
2. Heavy metal(loid)s in agriculture soils, rice, and wheat across China: Status assessment and spatiotemporal analysis
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 882, 15 July 2023, 163361
Heavy metal(loid)s (HMs) accumulation in agricultural soils, rice, and wheat is of particular concern in China, while the status and spatio-temporal distribution of HMs in the soil-crops system have been rarely reported at the national scale. This study aimed to summarize the overall pollution status, spatiotemporal patterns, and drivers of HMs in agricultural soil, rice, and wheat nationwide. The metal-polluted data from 1030 agricultural soils, rice, and wheat in China were collected from the literature published from 2000 to 2022. The results showed that Cd was the most prevailing contaminant in soils based on its spatiotemporal distribution and accumulation. The pollution cases and severe pollution percentage of Cd (103 %) and Hg (128 %) show an increasing trend pattern. Mining activities are the main anthropogenic sources of agricultural soil HMs in China. Cd and Pb had the highest exceedance rate in rice (33.5 and 32.2 %) and wheat (25.8 and 30.3 %). The rice from Hunan, Fujian, and Guangxi showed the highest average concentration of Cd and Pb, respectively, while wheat samples from Hubei had the greatest exceedance rate of Pb. Besides, HMs in crops was not usually corresponding to soil HMs but increased gradually from north to south areas. Several mitigation strategies and accurate health risk assessments model of HMs based on bioavailability were also proposed and recommended. Collectively, this review provides valuable information to improve the management of farmland nationwide, optimize the accurate risk assessment, and reduce HMs pollution.
3. Electrocoagulation treatment of furniture industry wastewater
Chemosphere, Volume 328, July 2023, 138500
Electrocoagulation was investigated as a method for treating wastewater containing polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) from the furniture industry. The study evaluated the evolution of iron concentration and passivation during the treatment process. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of inter-electrode distance (d), current density, and mode on treatment performance. Three values of d (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 cm) were studied and found to have no significant effect on performance. However, lower d values resulted in reduced energy consumption due to a decrease in applied voltage. Three values of current density (132, 158, and 197 A m−2) were studied under two current modes, Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Pulsed Current (APC). The best treatment performance for DC occurred under 158 A m−2 (the treated wastewater was characterized by pH = 4.59 ± 0.02, conductivity = 996 ± 21 μS cm−1, COD = 1940 ± 55 mgO2 L−1, TSS = 105 ± 14 mg L−1, and Fe = 50.39 ± 1.87 mgFe L−1). For APC, the best performance was achieved under 197 A m−2 (the treated wastewater was characterized by pH = 6.33 ± 0.06, conductivity = 988 ± 17 μS cm−1, COD = 1942 ± 312 mgO2 L−1, TSS = 199 ± 55 mg L−1, and Fe = 44.68 ± 4.60 mgFe L−1). Despite the promising results, treatment performance was insufficient to meet the legal requirements for water discharge. APC was found to be a more economically viable approach, as it reduced anode wear, electrode passivation, and energy consumption. The quantity of iron released increased with d, and the effect of current density on iron concentration was found to be non-linear. However, applying APC reduced the iron content for all tested current densities. The tests showed that EC was effective in removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS), achieving removal efficiencies above 92% and 99%, respectively. However, the studied treatment procedures were insufficient to meet the EU legal requirements for water discharge. Therefore, the obtained wastewater should undergo a post-treatment process.
4. Selective recovery of caprolactam from the thermo-catalytic conversion of textile waste over γ-Al2O3 supported metal catalysts
Environmental Pollution, Volume 329, 15 July 2023, 121684
The massive generation of synthetic textile waste has drawn considerable attention. Landfilling/incineration of textile waste has been widely made. To abate the environmental burdensome from the conventional management processes, a thermo-catalytic conversion was used for rapid volume reduction of textile waste and simultaneous valorization by recovering textile monomer in this study. Stockings were chosen as a model feedstock. Because stockings consisted of nylon with other contents, different products (caprolactam (nylon monomer), imines, cyclic dimers, and azepines) were recovered. The yield of caprolactam from the thermal conversion at 500 °C was 53.6 wt%. To selectively enhance the caprolactam yield, catalytic pyrolysis was done using γ-Al2O3 supported metal catalysts (Ni, Cu, Fe, or Co). γ-Al2O3 itself increased the caprolactam yield up to 69.0 wt% via a based-catalyzed reaction of nylon depolymerization and intramolecular cyclization. Under the presence of metal catalysts, the caprolactam yield increased up to 73.3 wt%. To offer desired feature of green chemistry, CO2 was adopted as reactive gas. Under the CO2-mediated catalytic pyrolysis, caprolactam yield was enhanced up to 77.1 wt% over Cu/Al2O3 (basis: stocking mass). Based on the net content of nylon in the stockings, the yield of caprolactam was deemed 95.3 wt%. This study proves that textile waste (stocking) and CO2 are useful resources for recovery of nylon monomer, which can reduce the waste generation with simultaneous recovery of value-added product.
5. Preliminary investigation of soil organic carbon distribution and turnover patterns, and potential pollution sources in and around a typical coking plant in North China
Environmental Research, Volume 228, 1 July 2023, 115845
The variation characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) in and around the coking plant area are still unclear. In this work, the concentration and stable carbon isotope composition of SOC in coke plant soils were investigated to preliminarily identify the sources of SOC in and around the plant area, and to characterize soil carbon turnover. Meanwhile, the carbon isotopic technique was used to initially identify the soil pollution processes and sources in and around the coking plant area. The results demonstrate that the SOC content (12.76 mg g−1) of the surface soil in the coking plant is about 6 times higher than that outside the coking plant (2.05 mg g−1), and the variation range of δ13C value of the surface soil in the plant (−24.63～-18.55‰) is larger than that of the soil outside the plant (−24.92～-20.22‰). The SOC concentration decreases gradually from the center of the plant outward with increasing distance, and the δ13C in the middle and north of the plant tends to be positive compared with the δ13C in the west and southeast of the plant. As the increase of soil depth, the SOC content and δ13C value in the plant increases. On the contrary, δ13C value and SOC content outside the plant decreases, with a minor variation. Based on the carbon isotope method, the SOC in and around the coking plant area is mainly from industrial activities (e.g., coal burning and coking), and partly from C3 plants. Notably, organic waste gases containing heavy hydrocarbons, light oils, and organic compounds accumulated in the northern and northeastern areas outside the plant due to south and southwest winds, which may pose an environmental health risk.
6. Exploring the multipotentiality of plant extracts for the green synthesis of iron nanoparticles: A study of adsorption capacity and dye degradation efficiency
Environmental Research, Volume 229, 15 July 2023, 116025
The goal of the project was to create environmentally friendly and economically viable materials for thoroughly purifying contaminated water. An affordable, phytogenic, and multifunctional plant-based nanomaterial was prepared in this context. The work demonstrates an effective green synthesis method for producing iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) using six different plant extracts as a reducing agent. The characterization of green synthesized catalysts was concluded via Spectroscopy (tauc plot), XRD, FE-SEM, and FT-IR. The produced nanomaterial, which had an X-ray diffractogram (XRD) peak at 43.33⁰ and a size range of 1.82–63.63 nm, functioned as a highly effective nano-photocatalyst for the degradation of cationic dye. Due to the presence of a lower overall secondary metabolites quota, Ocimum sanctum plant extract reduced iron precursor produced the highest yield of dried NPs, followed by Azadirachta indica, Prosopis cineraria, Syzygium cumini, Citrus limon, and Salvadora oleoides. Further, the synthesized catalyst was tested for its effectiveness against gentian violet dye degradation. Ocimum sanctum plant extract reduced iron precursor produced the highest yield of dried NPs, followed by Azadirachta indica, Prosopis cineraria, Syzygium cumini, Citrus limon, and Salvadora oleoides, in that order. The dye removal efficiency of nanoparticles was 51% (Azadirachta indica), 83% (Ocimum sanctum), 59% (Syzygium cumini), 40% (Salvadora oleoides), 59% (Prosopis cineraria), and 63% (Citrus limon) after 12 h of visible light irradiation. The key factor in the process of deterioration is •O2−. As a result, the nanoparticles can be used in antibacterial and photocatalytic processes. The reduced band gap was responsible for the increased photocatalytic quantity. The maximum adsorption capacity at the time of equilibrium was obtained in order as Ocimum sanctum > Citrus limon > Prosopis cineraria > Syzygium cumini > Azadirachta indica > Salvadora oleoides. The simplicity of production, low cost, magnetic property, and high adsorption capacity will increase the efficacy of the water treatment method. This article reports on the creation of unique iron nanoparticles and their use in the purification of water.
7. A review on the characteristics and methods of dairy industry wastewater treatment in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil
Journal of Water Process Engineering, Volume 53, July 2023, 103779
The dairy industry has great economic importance in Brazil, and Minas Gerais state is the largest producer of milk and its derivatives. Regulatory agencies establish criteria so that dairy industry wastewater is not discharged without prior and effective treatment in order to minimize environmental impacts. Therefore, the present study mainly aims to evaluate the characteristics of raw and treated dairy wastewater, and address the main treatment methods adopted by dairy industries in the state of Minas Gerais. High organic matter content was found for raw wastewater, i.e. up to 61,000 mg.L−1 of COD and 20,000 mg.L−1 of BOD5, in addition to high oils and grease (O&G), nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Over 60 % of raw wastewater samples showed BOD5/COD ratio above 0.4, which indicates high biodegradability. In general, treated wastewaters are in compliance with standards of disposal into receiving water bodies due to COD and BOD5 removal levels being above 70 % and 75 %, respectively. However, TSS concentrations above 100 mg.L−1 require treatment improvements. It was found that all reported industries make use of biological treatment processes, mostly activated sludge systems or anaerobic lagoons, which is usually accompanied by aerated or facultative lagoons. Furthermore, it was found that some dairy industries in Minas Gerais use treated wastewater for fertigating pasture areas or crops as means to reap agronomic advantages from it. Concerning treatment technologies evaluated on bench scale, submerged membrane bioreactors and hybrid oxidation/flotation have been effective in removing BOD5 in accordance with the discharge standards.
8. Informal E-waste recycling practices and environmental pollution in Africa: What is the way forward?
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Volume 252, July 2023, 114192
Globally, e-waste is the fastest growing and most valuable waste-stream. While countries worldwide are increasingly acknowledging the e-waste problem and introducing policies and regulations that deal with e-waste, large quantities of e-waste still go undocumented. Much of these global e-wastes are accumulating in open-dumpsites and landfills in African-countries where they are recycled informally resulting in significant environmental and public-health concerns. Although, there is a plethora of studies on e-waste management and disposal, only a few-studies have focused on African-countries who are major recipients of e-waste. Moreover, despite the attempts to mitigate the problem of e-waste in African-countries, e-waste has remained a major-concern and there are currently very limited workable solutions. This study examines informal e-waste recycling, environmental pollution and the extent of environmental and health impacts in major countries of concern including Ghana, Nigeria, Egypt, Kenya and South Africa. The global e-waste Waste Atlas Report, 2020 identified these countries as major recipients of e-waste. To achieve the aims of this research, previous studies from 2005 to 2022 are collected from various databases and analyzed. Accordingly, this study focuses on environmental pollution and public-health impacts resulting from e-waste dumping and informal recycling practices, illegal transboundary shipment of e-waste to the selected countries, and the interventions of governments and international organizations in reducing the impact of e-waste pollution and informal recycling practices in Africa. Based on the outcomes of this study, practical approaches on the way-forward are recommended. The findings of this study contribute to a growing-body of research on informal e-waste recycling practices in Africa to document that individuals working within e-waste sites and residents in nearby communities are exposed to a number of toxic-substances, some at potentially concerning levels.
9. Optimization of anaerobic digestion and solubilization of biosludges from the kraft cellulose industry using thermal hydrolysis as pretreatment
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 344, 15 October 2023, 118504
The management of secondary sludge from aerobic treatment of effluents from the cellulose industry is a current problem. The usual ways of disposal do not provide added value to the waste as they assume an economy based on "take-make-waste” (linear economy). In this work, thermal hydrolysis (TH) and anaerobic digestion (AD) are proposed to valorize this biosludge. Based on a Doehlert experimental plan, a response surface methodology (RSM) defined by seven different TH conditions is proposed. After TH, biomethanation potential (BMP) tests were performed to evaluate the AD possibilities. The TH conditions cover a temperature range between 125 °C and 205 °C and a reaction time from 15 min to 45 min. The TH process was successful in enhancing the bioavailability of the waste, increasing the concentration of soluble organic matter quantified by chemical oxygen demand of the soluble fraction (CODs), and decreasing the concentration of volatile suspended solids (VSS). However, response surfaces performed for CODs and VSS revealed the existence of optimums, which demonstrated the adverse effects of the more severe TH conditions. Organic matter solubilization was confirmed by microscopic observations. The amount of suspended organic matter after TH is reduced by two to three times compared to the untreated value. The subsequent BMP of the hydrolyzed waste increases between 100% and 220% compared to the untreated condition, wich had a BMP value of 84 NmL CH4 gVS−1. The response surface determined for the BMP reveals the presence of a maximum point of methane production at 202 °C for 31 min, which differs from the maximum CODs value observed at 196 °C for 40 min.
10. Nature-based solutions in post-industrial sites: Integrated evaluation of atmospheric pollution abatement and carbon uptake in a German city
Urban Climate, Volume 50, July 2023, 101579
The evaluation of ecosystem services (ESs) provided by Nature-based Solution (NbS) interventions is crucial to assess their efficiency and plan their management. This study focuses on atmospheric pollutants abatement and carbon mitigation potential of tree species (S. alba L., R. pseudoacacia L., C. betulus L., A. campestre L., B. pendula Roth, T. cordata MILL., S. aucuparia L.) located in a restored landfill in Dortmund (DE). Leaves from different species were analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, obtaining density, elemental composition and weight of leaf deposited particulate matter (PM) as a function of size fraction and tree species. Experimental PM2.5 removal is compared with that obtained by the i-Tree Eco model. Modelled removals of O3, SO2 and NO2 are also presented, as well as carbon uptake, from the single tree to the intervention scale. Thus, our study evaluates the provision of ESs for air quality and climate change mitigation by the same NbS intervention, at different scales, and compares experimental and modelling approaches, to highlight limitations and strength points. This represents an important step for the developing of NbS benefits evaluation standards, also providing helpful knowledge for stakeholders and landscape planners in terms of species mitigation efficiency.
11. A game theoretic framework for post-consumer recycled and new packaging industries
Computers & Industrial Engineering, Volume 181, July 2023, 109305
This paper presents a game-theoretic framework of competition for two packaging companies. The first one is a traditional packaging firm that employs new raw materials in its packaging and invests in innovative packaging solutions. In contrast, the other takes advantage of a combination of new and post-consumer-recycled (PCR) material based on a cost saving strategy. The model incorporates the price and quality of the product as well as its packaging and is implemented on packaging firms with the same source of manufacturer/importer. Two different scenarios are considered with the potential to push companies towards sustainable solutions; namely the existence of eco-conscious consumers and government tax on the new raw material packaging. The problem is established as a two-stage game, and the optimal level of investment in packaging innovation, the optimal ratio of PCR material and the optimal retail prices are derived, all in equilibrium. A real-world example and also parametric and sensitivity analysis are provided and valuable insights are derived. The results indicate that current proposed virgin tax plans do not provide a strong incentive towards sustainable packaging, whereas eco-conscious customers give this impetus. It was also observed that the imposed virgin tax does not impede innovation investment in virgin packaging companies.
12. Assessment of sustainable eco-processed pozzolan (EPP) from palm oil industry as a fly ash replacement in geopolymer concrete
Construction and Building Materials, Volume 387, 17 July 2023, 131424
This research focusses on the feasibility of using eco-processed pozzolan (EPP), a palm oil industrial by-product, as partial replacement for fly ash (FA) in the geopolymer concrete (GPC); in addition, the effect of another palm oil industrial by-product, palm oil clinker (POC) as the lightweight coarse aggregate in the EPP-based GPC was also investigated. The ratios of alkaline activator to binder and sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide were kept constant, and the specimens were cured at 60 °C for 24 h. The mechanical properties, namely compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths, and modulus of elasticity (MOE) were investigated; further, microstructural analyses such as SEM, XRD and EDX were conducted. The test results show that the utilisation of 10–30% of EPP as FA replacement produced the compressive strengths in the range of 28–39 MPa. The splitting tensile strength of both the lightweight (LW) and normal weight (NW) GPC, except for M6 containing 30% of EPP substitution, fulfilled the minimum requirement of 2.0 MPa. In addition, the flexural strength of GPC produced about 12% of the respective compressive strength. The lower MOE of LW GPC compared to the NW GPC is attributed to the lower stiffness and specific gravity of POC aggregates. The XRD analysis shows the evidence of geopolymerization products of quartz, sillimanite, magnetite, and almandine.
13. Decarbonizing the cement and concrete industry: A systematic review of socio-technical systems, technological innovations, and policy options
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 180, July 2023, 113291
Concrete is the most highly used construction material globally. This is largely due to its durability, versatility and manufacture from inexpensive and readily available materials. Although concrete has become an essential and ubiquitous construction material for modern society, its use has significant environmental impacts. The full cement and concrete lifecycle, from production to final disposal, accounts for nearly 10% of global energy-related CO2 emissions with the majority of these emissions produced from cement, which is the binding material that holds concrete together. The cement and concrete industry (CCI), which is integral to global infrastructure development, is therefore confronted with a growing need to decarbonize its operations and products, as well as to support the decarbonization of associated end-user sectors. This paper provides a systematic and critical review of more than 800 studies to highlight ways in which the CCI can decarbonize. A socio-technical perspective is used to understand the full range of industrial and economic activities where a decarbonized paradigm for cement and concrete production is relevant. This perspective is further used to assess key technical, economic, social and political factors that will drive a net-zero transition in the CCI over the long term.
14. Molecular insights into the dissolved organic matter of leather wastewater in leather industrial park wastewater treatment plant
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 882, 15 July 2023, 163174
Leather wastewater (LW) effluent is characterized by complex organic matter, high salinity, and poor biodegradability. To meet the discharge standards, LW effluent is often mixed with municipal wastewater (MW) before being treated at a leather industrial park wastewater treatment plant (LIPWWTP). However, whether this method efficiently removes the dissolved organic matter (DOM) from LW effluent (LWDOM) remains debatable. In this study, the transformation of DOM during full-scale treatment was revealed using spectroscopy and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. LWDOM exhibited higher aromaticity and lower molecular weight than DOM in MW (MWDOM). The DOM properties in mixed wastewater (MixW) were similar to those in LWDOM and MWDOM. The MixW was treated using a flocculation/primary sedimentation tank (FL1/PST), anoxic/oxic (A/O) process, secondary sedimentation tank (SST), flocculation/sedimentation tank, denitrification filter (FL2/ST-DNF), and an ozonation contact reactor (O3). The FL1/PST unit preferentially removed the peptide-like compounds. The A/O-SST units had the highest removal efficiencies for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (61.34 %) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) (52.2 %). The FL2/ST-DNF treatment removed the lignin-like compounds. The final treatment showed poor DOM mineralization efficiency. The correlation between water quality indices, spectral indices, and molecular-level parameters indicated that lignin-like compounds were strongly correlated with spectral indices and CHOS compounds considerably contributed to the SCOD and DOC. Although the effluent SCOD met the discharge standard, some refractory DOM from LW remained in the effluent. This study illustrates the composition and transformation of DOM and provides theoretical guidance for improving the current treatment processes.
15. Mechanistic insights into the structure-activity relationship of FeS for arsenic removal in strongly acidic wastewater
Journal of Water Process Engineering, Volume 53, July 2023, 103904
Sulfide precipitation is an efficient method for separation. However, its application is limited due to the significant H2S pollution caused by conventional reagents. The utilization of amorphous FeS lead to a substantial reduction in H2S escape, while concurrently enhancing the crystallization and settling characteristics of As-precipitates. Under the conditions of an initial arsenic and H2SO4 concentration in the solution of 2 g/L and 50 g/L, respectively, and a FeS dosage of 1.5 times the molar amount of S/As, the arsenic removal exhibited a significant decrease from 89.8 % to 40.8 % over a FeS aging period of 0 to 84 days. Notably, no H2S emissions were detected during the entire reaction process. XRD analysis revealed a transformation of FeS from its amorphous form to a crystalline state as it undergoes aging. This transition is primarily characterized by a reduction in interlayer spacing and Fesingle bondS bond length within the FeS lattice. The lattice energy experienced a decrease from −3071 to −3688 kJ/mol, indicating the progressive stabilization of the FeS structure. FTIR and TG-DSC analyses have demonstrated the infiltration of water molecules into both the interlamellar spaces and the lattice of FeS during the process of crystallization. Additionally, As3+ ions were observed to initially adsorb onto the surface of aged FeS through the hydroxyl group, followed by their diffusion into the lattice. The products of arsenic removal undergone a transformation from As2S3 to predominantly FeAsS-like complexes, as the mechanism of arsenic removal shifted from precipitate transformation to adsorption and co-precipitation.
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