Về quản lý môi trường
- Xử lý sinh học thân thiện với môi trường các chất ô nhiễm từ nước thải bị ô nhiễm bằng cách sử dụng chủng vi khuẩn tham chiếu đặc biệt Bacillus cereus SDN1 và đánh giá độc tính di truyền của chúng trong Allium cepa
- Xác định nguồn nitrat trong các nguồn nước máy trên khắp Hàn Quốc bằng cách sử dụng nhiều đồng vị ổn định: Ý nghĩa đối với việc sử dụng đất và quản lý nước
- Đánh giá rủi ro chấp nhận được và quản lý các sự cố khẩn cấp về ô nhiễm môi trường dựa trên mô hình khoảng cách
- Mức độ phổ biến và ý nghĩa của hạt vi nhựa trong hệ thống nước uống: Bản cập nhật
- Xác định các chiến lược quản lý mặt đường bền vững với môi trường thông qua học sâu tăng cường
- Ra quyết định dựa trên đánh giá vòng đời để xử lý nhiệt cho đất bị ô nhiễm ở góc độ khu vực
- Tác động của các đặc tính của ván đối với sản xuất thân thiện với môi trường: Một nghiên cứu xuyên quốc gia ở Châu Á và Châu Âu
- Các động lực chính của hành vi vì môi trường trong lĩnh vực tư nhân ở năm quốc gia châu Âu trong đại dịch Covid-19
- Cho phép quản lý nước theo định hướng hiệu quả và tác động thấp từ quá trình ra quyết định mạnh mẽ: Mô hình hỗ trợ quyết định đa mục tiêu dựa trên rủi ro và sự mạnh mẽ
- Vốn cộng đồng và tính bền vững (xã hội): Sử dụng và lạm dụng các phương pháp tiếp cận dựa trên tài sản trong quản lý môi trường
Về môi trường đô thị
- Đánh giá lượng khí thải trên đường từ xe buýt đô thị trong các tình huống tắc nghẽn giao thông khác nhau bằng cách tích hợp dữ liệu lái xe, giao thông và khí thải trong thế giới thực
- Đặc điểm của lượng mưa cực đoan và tác động của nó đối với các dịch vụ hệ sinh thái trong Quần thể đô thị Vũ Hán
- Xuất hiện nhiều loại virus đường hô hấp trong nước thải ở Queensland, Australia: Tiềm năng giám sát dịch bệnh cộng đồng
- Cải thiện hiệu suất của giường sinh thái quy mô thí điểm kết hợp với hệ thống điện hóa vi sinh để xử lý nước đuôi đô thị
- Sự khác nhau về hiện trạng, nguồn gốc và nguy cơ ô nhiễm kim loại nặng trong đất ở các vùng có mức độ đô thị hóa khác nhau
- Phân phối, nguồn gốc, rủi ro và xử lý ô nhiễm các hydrocacbon thơm đa vòng (PAH) trong vùng nước cảnh quan đô thị điển hình được tái tạo bằng nước khai hoang
- Đặc điểm và số phận của ô nhiễm nhựa trong ao nước mưa đô thị
- Đặc điểm phân chia hạt khí được phân giải theo kích thước của các hợp chất hữu cơ bán bay hơi điển hình trong khí quyển đô thị
- Vi hạt nhựa ở các con sông dọc theo độ dốc đô thị-nông thôn trong sự kết tụ đô thị: Mối tương quan với việc sử dụng đất, các nguồn tiềm năng và con đường
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
- Sự hình thành các sợi vi nhựa và sợi nhỏ trong quá trình mài mòn của một bộ 12 loại vải dệt polyester
- Đánh giá rủi ro sức khỏe của các thành phần vô cơ và hữu cơ của PM thô và mịn ở khu vực công nghiệp hóa của Brazil
- Đánh giá ô nhiễm và rủi ro sức khỏe đối với đất bị ô nhiễm Cr từ đầm chứa chất thải thuộc da, Hà Bắc, phía bắc Trung Quốc: Tập trung vào sự hình thành Cr
- Biến chất thải thành tài nguyên: Điều chế hỗn hợp bùn NiO@γ-Al2O3 từ bùn chứa nhôm để loại bỏ cadmium khỏi nước thải
- Phân tích dòng nguyên liệu động của các quy trình sản xuất ethylene của Trung Quốc và khám phá con đường tối ưu với các tác động kinh tế-môi trường tiềm năng
- Xử lý đất bị ô nhiễm kim loại nặng bằng hai axit hữu cơ: Hiệu quả rửa, hiệu suất thu hồi và phân tích lợi ích
- Phấn đấu sản xuất hàng dệt kim ít độc hại hơn - Đánh giá tác động môi trường
- Tác động của ô nhiễm nghiêm trọng từ khí thải nhà máy luyện kim đối với sự tích tụ carbon và kim loại ở vùng đất than bùn ở Ontario, Canada
- Đặc tính của chất độc vi tảo trong trầm tích từ một khu công nghiệp: Ứng dụng phân tích hướng hiệu ứng tiên tiến với nhiều xét nghiệm sinh học điểm cuối
- Quá trình chuyển đổi năng lượng có thể là yếu tố thay đổi cuộc chơi đối với việc chuyển giao các ngành công nghiệp gây ô nhiễm từ các nước phát triển sang các nước đang phát triển không? Một ứng dụng của lý thuyết trò chơi
-Số phận của các gen và vi khuẩn kháng kháng sinh trong hệ thống xử lý nước kết hợp với các nhà máy xử lý nước thải và vùng đất ngập nước được xây dựng trong các khu công nghiệp sinh thái ven biển
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Do tillage systems affect the cadmium threshold in farmland soil for environmental quality standard setting?
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 862, 1 March 2023, 160816
Tillage systems may change the cadmium (Cd) threshold of farmland soil. However, there have been few studies on this topic. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the influence of tillage systems on Cd threshold. The study conducted 2-year field experiments under different tillage systems (early rice-fallow, early rice-late rice and early rice-vegetable) at three typical Cd-polluted sites in China. The species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method was used to construct the SSD curves for the calculation of the Cd threshold by analyzing the experimental data. The sensitivity analysis results based on the SSD curves revealed that the sensitivities to Cd in rice varieties under the same tillage system were substantially different but almost the same under different tillage systems. These results can help select rice varieties with low Cd sensitivity for crop safety. Different tillage systems at the same site varied in their influence on Cd threshold values. Cd threshold values under early rice-late rice (e.g., 0.27, 0.28 mg/kg in Xiangtan City) and early rice-vegetable (e.g., 0.26, 0.31 mg/kg in Xiangtan City) tillage systems were roughly lower than that under the early rice-fallow tillage system (e.g., 0.33, 0.35 mg/kg in Xiangtan City). Notably, the influence of tillage systems resulted in Cd threshold values being generally lower than the Cd risk screening values of the current Chinese soil environmental quality standard. Analysis of the influence of different tillage systems on the Cd threshold is beneficial for the optimization of farmland soil environmental quality standards.
2. Eco-friendly bioremediation of pollutants from contaminated sewage wastewater using special reference bacterial strain of Bacillus cereus SDN1 and their genotoxicological assessment in Allium cepa
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 863, 10 March 2023, 160935
The present study aimed to assess the Bacillus cereus SDN1 native bacterium's ability to clean up contaminated or polluted water. The isolated bacterium was identified by its morphological and biochemical characteristics, which were then confirmed at the genus level. Furthermore, the isolated B. cereus (NCBI accession No: MW828583) was identified genomically by PCR amplifying 16 s rDNA using a universal primer. The phylogenetic analysis of the rDNA sequence was analyzed to determine the taxonomic and evolutionary profile of the isolate of the previously identified Bacillus sp. Besides, B. cereus and the bacterial consortium were treated using sewage wastewater. After 15 days of treatment, the following pollutants or chemicals were reduced: total hardness particles removal varied from 63.33 % to 67.55 %, calcium removal varied from 90 % to 93.33 %, and total nitrate decreased range from 37.77 % to 22.22 %, respectively. Electrical conductivity ranged from 1809 mS/cm to 2500 mS/cm, and pH values ranged from 6.5 to 8.95. The outcome of in-situ remediation results suggested that B. cereus has a noticeable remediation efficiency to the suspended particles. A root tip test was also used to investigate the genotoxicity of treated and untreated sewage-contaminated waters on onion (Allium cepa) root cells. The highest chromosomal aberrations and mitotic inhibition were found in roots exposed to contaminated sewage water, and their results displayed chromosome abnormalities, including disorganized, sticky chain, disturbed metaphase, chromosomal displacement in anaphase, abnormal telophase, spindle disturbances, and binucleate cells observed in A. cepa exposed to untreated contaminated water. The study can thus be applied as a biomarker to detect the genotoxic impacts of sewage water pollution on biota. Furthermore, based on an identified bacterial consortium, this work offers a low-cost and eco-favorable method for treating household effluents.
3. Identification of nitrate sources in tap water sources across South Korea using multiple stable isotopes: Implications for land use and water management
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 864, 15 March 2023, 161026
Stable nitrate isotopes (δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3) in conjunction with stable water isotopes (δ18O-H2O and δD-H2O) were used to identify nitrogen (N) sources and N-biogeochemical transformation in tap water sources sampled from 11 water purification plants across South Korea. The raw water sources are taken from rivers within the water supply basins, which indicates the quality of tap water is highly dependent on surrounding the land use type. We estimated the proportional contribution of the various N sources (AD: atmospheric deposition; SN: soil nitrogen; CF: chemical fertilizer; M&S: manure/sewage) using Bayesian Mixing Model. As a result, the contribution of N sources exhibited large seasonal and spatial differences, which were related to the type of land use in the water supply basins. Commonly, the M&S and SN were the dominant N source during the dry and wet seasons in almost regions, respectively. However, in the regions with high N loading ratios from urban and industrial sources, the M&S was the dominant N source during both the wet and dry seasons. In addition, the regions were characterized by high NO3− concentrations due to the decreased dilution effect of precipitation during the dry seasons. In contrast, the SN was the dominant N source in the regions with high N loading ratios from agricultural areas during both the wet and dry seasons. The NO3−-N concentration during the wet season was significantly higher than those during the dry season in these regions due to the input of non-point sources with high concentrations. Meanwhile, denitrification and nitrification were observed in the watersheds. It is important to understand the isotope fractionation due to N-biogeochemical transformation for considering the potential misinterpretations of the origin and fate NO3−. Collectively, our findings provide a basis on N source control strategies to ensure tap water quality in complex land use areas.
4. Assessment of the urban waterlogging resilience and identification of its driving factors: A case study of Wuhan City, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 866, 25 March 2023, 161321
With rapid urbanization and extreme rainstorm events associated with climate change, urban waterlogging has become one of the most frequent and severe disasters globally. In this study, a multi-dimensional and multi-process index system based on the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) framework was developed to measure the level of urban waterlogging resilience (UWR). The spatial distribution of UWR on a block scale was explored based on the entropy weight method with the natural breakpoint method (EWM-NBM) in the central district of Wuhan City, China. In addition, the effects of the runoff control facilities and early warning measures on UWR were also quantified. Further, the Geodetector was used to investigate the main driving factors of UWR and their interactions. Results showed that the constructed index system for UWR based on the PSR framework performed reasonably, and the EWM-NBM was validated to be effective in the integrated assessment. In terms of the validation results, 82.72 % of the recorded waterlogging points belonged to high and very-high risk levels. The spatial heterogeneity of UWR was significant in the study area where the higher-level UWR mainly appears in the areas near the undeveloped suburban and water bodies (lakes and rivers), and the lower-level UWR was concentrated in central urban areas with more impervious surfaces. There was a clear increasing trend in UWR after the implementation of runoff control facilities and early warning measures, but its spatial distribution remained almost invariant. Among all the indexes, the impervious surface percentage had the strongest (69.58 %) explanatory ability for the UWR, and mean annual precipitation (15.51 %), GDP (14.03 %), and population density (11.98 %) also demanded attention. Most driving factors of UWR showed nonlinear interactions. This research could provide a benchmark for urba
5. Acceptable risk assessment and management of environmental pollution emergency events base on distance model
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 866, 25 March 2023, 161298
Existing environmental management regulations and assessment methods can help understand and relieve pollution problems greatly affecting the natural world. However, what is lacking is awareness and targeted recommendations for environmental pollution emergency events (EPEEs). Here we analyzed a total of 2164 EPEEs in China from 2000 to 2021 in terms of annual variations, spatial distributions, phases of regional development, and pollution sources. The findings showed that regional economies can have significant impacts on the occurrence of EPEEs. Regarding the four causes of pollution, the contribution from industrial sources was above 80 %, especially water pollution events, for which it accounted for 84 %. The probability of pollution events specifically relates to regional GDP and it was highest in those provinces with the highest GDP rankings, albeit there were marked differences in the industrial structure. In order to better manage EPEEs, an Environment-Emergency Distance Model (EEDM) is proposed. This model uses the Multidimensional psychological distance to quantitatively evaluate the acceptable public risk level after the occurrence of EPEEs. This method provides a basis for pollution prevention and remediation by visualizing the risk acceptable for the public and provides guidance for sustainable environmental development.
6. Prevalence and implications of microplastics in potable water system: An update
Chemosphere, Volume 317, March 2023, 137848
Synthetic plastics, which are lightweight, durable, elastic, mouldable, cheap, and hydrophobic, were originally invented for human convenience. However, their non-biodegradability and continuous accumulation at an alarming rate as well as subsequent conversion into micro/nano plastic scale structures via mechanical and physio-chemical degradation pose significant threats to living beings, organisms, and the environment. Various minuscule forms of plastics detected in water, soil, and air are making their passage into living cells. High temperature and ambient humidity increase the degradation potential of plastic polymers photo-catalytically under sunlight or UV-B radiations. Microplastics (MPs) of polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene, polystyrene, polypropylene, and polyvinyl chloride have been detected in bottled water. These microplastics are entering into the food chain cycle, causing serious harm to all living organisms. MPs entering into the food chain are usually inert in nature, possessing different sizes and shapes. Once they enter a cell or tissue, it causes mechanical damage, induces inflammation, disturbs metabolism, and even lead to necrosis. Various generation routes, types, impacts, identification, and treatment of microplastics entering the water bodies and getting associated with various pollutants are discussed in this review. It emphasizes potential detection techniques like pyrolysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT IR) spectroscopy for microplastics from water samples.
7. Identifying environmentally sustainable pavement management strategies via deep reinforcement learning
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 390, 1 March 2023, 136124
Pavement life cycle assessments (LCAs) enable decision-makers to evaluate the environmental impact of alternative maintenance, rehabilitation, and reconstruction strategies. This paper explores the viability of deep reinforcement learning (DRL), a framework that enables agents to learn optimal actions within a given situation, to identify environmentally benign pavement management strategies. More specifically, this study utilizes proximal-policy optimization (PPO), a subtype of DRL algorithms, to identify a management strategy that minimizes the expected global warming impact of a pavement facility over its lifecycle. Through an urban Interstate case study, this paper shows that the proposed PPO algorithm identifies management strategies that are anticipated to reduce the expected global warming impact of a pavement facility over its planning horizon by 16 percent relative to traditional practice. Furthermore, the PPO algorithm is able to identify this management strategy in only 25 learning iterations, which is in stark comparison to Q-learning, a common reinforcement learning algorithm, that requires 70,000 learning iterations. The results of this work highlight the viability of DRL to integrate within complex LCA models to determine environmentally sustainable pavement management strategies.
8. Life cycle assessment-based decision-making for thermal remediation of contaminated soil in a regional perspective
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 392, 15 March 2023, 136260
Optimizing decision-making to reduce the environmental impact of remediation activities is critical for green and sustainable remediation. Currently, the environmental impact assessment for remediation technologies is primarily based on site-specific data, which makes the assessment results difficult to apply to different site conditions. In our study, an abandoned rubber factory site in the Jiangsu Province of China was used as an example to evaluate the life cycle impact of three frequently used soil remediation strategies including cement kiln co-processing, onsite ex-situ thermal desorption, and offsite ex-situ thermal desorption. The results show that when considering the subsequent disposal of contaminated soil after remediation, the environmental impacts of remediating 1 ton of contaminated soil decrease according to the following order: offsite ex-situ thermal desorption, onsite ex-situ thermal desorption, and cement kiln co-processing. The results also indicate that contaminated soil volume and transport distance profoundly affect the environmental impacts of contaminated soil remediation. Based on these findings, we proposed a generalized method for selecting the most environmentally friendly remediation technology under various site characteristics. Within the developed method, we examined remediation options for 43 sites contaminated by organic chemicals in Jiangsu Province. The simulation results suggest that the optimized remediation options could have reduced environmental impacts by as much as 61.1%. Our study provides insights and valuable information for reducing remediation decision-making costs and promoting sustainable remediation of contaminated soil on a regional scale.
9. The impact of board characteristics on environmentally friendly production: A cross country study in Asia and Europe
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 392, 15 March 2023, 136257
The present study investigates the impact of board characteristics on environmentally friendly production. The current research uses secondary data extracted from the Refinitiv Eikon database. The data is extracted from the database for a sample of 8094 corporates from 2 continents, Asia and Europe, from 2016 to 2021. Panel data analysis with fixed effect models is used to estimate the results. The findings reveal that board size, independence, and industry expertise significantly impact environmentally friendly production. The results also indicate that board diversity correlates positively with environmentally friendly production in European corporates but negatively in Asian corporates. Findings show that the moderating role of environmental teams has a greater interaction effect with board characteristics in Europe than in Asia. Finally, the results also show that higher environmental performance and environmental, social, and governance scores lead to higher levels of environmentally friendly production. The study has valuable insights and implications for board members, practitioners, academicians, and policymakers. Further, the study contributes to the strand literature by investigating the role of environmental teams on the relationship between board characteristics and environmentally friendly production. The findings are supported by agency, legitimacy, and stakeholder theories, which contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between board characteristics and environmentally friendly production. The evidence about this issue is still unknown and critical, particularly in the context of developing countries where there is a lack of regulatory enforcement related to environmental, social, and governance disclosures.
10. The primary drivers of private-sphere pro-environmental behaviour in five European countries during the Covid-19 pandemic
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 393, 20 March 2023, 136330
Nowadays, when fighting climate change and other global environmental issues is of utmost urgency, the understanding of what drives pro-environmental behaviour has become a hot topic in both academic and practical circles. Some earlier studies unravelled the complexity of the underlying factors of pro-environmental conduct, yet more studies are needed to understand the socio-cultural premises of such behaviour in different countries. The main aim of this paper is to offer a comprehensive analysis of the importance of pro-environmental behaviour drivers across five countries in Europe, namely Greece, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The survey using computer-assisted web interviews (N = 2502) was implemented in July 2020, the first summer of the Covid-19 pandemic. Hierarchical linear models were employed to analyse individuals’ behaviour, defined as self-perceived declaration of the willingness to contribute to environmental conservation. The results showed that attitudinal and value-related factors are more significant than demographics. Biospheric values and relationship to nature generally affect pro-environmental behaviour positively. Similarly, the experience of Covid-19 exerted a positive influence. In terms of country-level predictors, greenhouse gas emissions were found to have affected pro-environmental behaviour negatively, while the share of renewable energy sources influenced it positively. The cumulative country Covid-19-related mortality at the time of investigation did not have discernible impact. Based on the results it is suggested that, in order to foster PEB, a stronger emphasis on environmental education and attitudes towards nature should be employed.
11. Enabling efficiency-driven and low-impact water management from robust decision making: A risk- and robustness-based multi-objective decision support model
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 394, 25 March 2023, 136277
Increasing water-use efficiency across all sectors has been set as a key target for sustainable water management within the framework of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Agriculture stands out as a key sector where opportunities for sustainable transformation arise, due to its dominant position in water use. The aim of this study is to propose a risk- and robustness-based multi-objective decision support model (RARB-MODSM) tool to help explore water-efficient agricultural development schemes and to enable inclusion of their associated environmental impacts into a stringent assessment of the risks. This tool allows for integration of economic growth and water use objectives with stringent pollution control requirements to help gain insights into the trade-offs between resource efficiency and environmental impact. This paper provides a case study of the application of this decision support tool in a prefectural-level city in China as an example of demonstrating how the tool could help reduce the water usage from the agricultural sector while enabling a higher economic productivity. The results show that expanding agricultural production in two regions of the city may help promote efficiency-oriented water management and improve the entire agricultural system's economic productivity. The results also indicate that this agricultural system is more sensitive to the control over phosphorus discharge and imposing more stringent total phosphorus (TP) control requirements within local agricultural system may help achieve better results on the system-wide pollution control. Overall, this tool demonstrates the applicability of using the systems analysis approach to help navigate the agricultural transition toward a water-efficient and low-impact growth path.
12. Flood risk assessment by using an interpretative structural modeling based Bayesian network approach (ISM-BN): An urban-level analysis of Shenzhen, China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 329, 1 March 2023, 117040
With increasingly uncertain environmental conditions under global change, it is rather important for water security management to evaluate the flood risk, which is influenced by the compound effect of severe weather events and strong anthropogenic activities. In this paper, a risk assessment model in the framework of Bayesian network (BN) was proposed through incorporating with the Interpretative Structural Modeling method (ISM), which would produce an integrated ISM-BN model for reliable flood assessments. The ISM is employed to identify the relations among multiple risk factors, and then helps to configure the BN structure to conduct a risk inference. The established model was further demonstrated in Shenzhen city of China to perform an urban-level risk analysis of the flood disaster, and the Enhanced Water Index (EWI) was introduced to derive model parameters for training and verification. The obtained results of risk assessment lead to an accuracy of 76% with the Area Under ROC Curve (AUC) of 0.82, and spatial distribution of risk levels also showed a satisfactory performance. In addition, it was found that the maximum daily rainfall among ten risk factors play a key part in flood occurrence, while the elevation and storm frequency are also sensitive indicators for the study area. Besides, the spatial flood risk map generated under various design rainfall scenarios would contribute to identifying potential areas that are worth paying particular attention. Thus, the developed assessment model would be a useful tool for supporting flood risk governance to achieve reliable urban water security.
13. Research on the potential for China to achieve carbon neutrality: A hybrid prediction model integrated with elman neural network and sparrow search algorithm
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 329, 1 March 2023, 117081
China's carbon reduction is of substantial significance in combating global climate change. In the context of the COVID-19 epidemic hit and economic and social development uncertainty, this study intends to discover whether China can attain the strategic destination of carbon peaking by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060 on schedule. Toward this aim, the grey relation analysis (GRA) is applied to filter the elements influencing carbon emissions to downgrade the dimensionality of indicators. A hybrid prediction is proposed integrated with Elman neural network (ENN) and sparrow search algorithm (SSA) to explore the potential for China to carbon neutrality from 2020 to 2060. The results reveal eight elements including GDP per capita, population, urbanization, total energy consumption and others are highly correlated with carbon emissions. China has a good chance of carbon peaking from 2028 to 2030, with a value of 11568.6–12330.5 Mt, while only one scenario can achieve carbon neutrality in 2060. In the neutral scenario, China should reach a proportion of renewable energy exceeding 80%, the urbanization rate reaching 85% and energy consumption controlling within 6.5 billion tons. A set of countermeasures for carbon abatement are presented to facilitate the implementation of carbon neutrality strategy.
14. Assessment of greenhouse gases emissions and intensity from Chinese marine aquaculture in the past three decades
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 329, 1 March 2023, 117025
Marine aquaculture is increasingly gaining importance as a source of food with high nutritional value. However, the expansion of aquaculture could be responsible for water contamination that influences the environmental quality of coastal ecosystems, and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) that affect global climate. China is the world's largest producer of marine aquaculture protein, which demands robust studies to assess the corresponding GHG emissions and intensity. To fill in this knowledge gap, the current study quantifies and analyzes GHG emissions and intensity (emission intensity is defined as GHG emissions per unit of production) from Chinese marine aquaculture (marine aquaculture production) over the past 30 years (1991–2020). The production of marine aquaculture comes from the China Fisheries Statistical Yearbooks. And the GHG emissions and intensity were calculated based on five sectors (commercial feed, trash fish, N2O, CH4, and energy) by Emission-Factor Approach. The results suggest that, excluding shellfish and algae, GHG emissions of ten coastal provinces (excluding Shanghai, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau) increased from 2 Mt (109 kg) CO2-eq in 1991 to 25 Mt CO2-eq in 2020. In contrast, GHG emission intensity decreased in the same period from 7.33 (t CO2-eq/t production) to 6.34 (t CO2-eq/t production), indicating a progressive mitigation in GHG emissions per unit of product, hence sustainably satisfying a growing demand for food. As a result, China's marine aquaculture seems to be paving a promising way towards the neutrality of GHG emissions. In most provinces, GHG is on the rise, and only in Tianjin is on the decline in recent years. For the emissions intensity, the values of more than half provinces showed the downtrends. In addition, by considering the ratio of shellfish and algae, Chinese marine aquaculture can improve the net zero goal for GHG emissions of the sector. Finally, results also reveal for the first time the changes in taxonomic composition and spatial GHG emissions and intensity, providing new understanding and scientific bases to elaborate consistent mitigation strategies for an expanding global marine aquaculture.
15. Community capitals and (social) sustainability: Use and misuse of asset-based approaches in environmental management
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 329, 1 March 2023, 117122
Sustainability has increasingly gained momentum as an underlying framework to orient decisions and actions in environmental management. However, while acting in view of sustainability goals is a noble intention, both the conceptualization and the implementation of sustainability remain a subject of debate. This is partly due to the widespread lack of consideration for its social dimension and the interactions this has with the environmental and economic dimensions. To this end, the Community Capitals Framework and other asset-based approaches are often used to deal with these problematic aspects of sustainability in environmental management. Through a systematic review of scientific peer-reviewed articles, this paper investigates the conceptual and practical application of such approaches. Results from our analysis show that different declinations of community capitals exist within environmental management. In all the forms they assume in the 42 frameworks identified, their employment seems effective in promoting the inclusion of social, economic and environmental dimensions when conducting sustainability assessments. However, we identified two main difficulties that challenge the application of asset-based approaches in practice. First, in most cases, capital assessment is not carried out in the planning phase of an environmental intervention in order to identify community resources; capitals are employed instead to measure the impact of an ecological change ex-post, thus being discordant with their theoretical foundations. Second, the existence of a vast array of terms to refer to community assets creates disorientation among exponents of different stakeholder groups and hinders a practical and effective application of this concept. On the basis of our results, we claim the importance of conducting community resources assessment and stakeholder consultation at different times and through practice oriented approaches and cross-silos communication efforts in order to develop a shared understanding of the problem and facilitate sustainable, adaptive and participatory approaches to environmental management
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Vegetated urban streams have sufficient purification ability but high internal nutrient loadings: Microbial communities and nutrient release dynamics
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 863, 10 March 2023, 160921
The release of nutrients back into the water column due to macrophyte litter decay could offset the benefits of nutrient removal by hydrophytes within urban streams. However, the influence of this internal nutrient cycling on the overlying water quality and bacterial community structure is still an open question. Hence, litter decomposition trials using six hydrophytes, Typha latifolia (TL), Phragmites australis (PAU), Hydrilla verticillata (HV), Oenanthe javanica (OJ), Myriophyllum aquaticum (MA), and Potamogeton crispus (PC), were performed using the litterbag approach to mimic a 150-day plant litter decay in sediment-water systems. Field assessment using simple in/out mass balances and uptake by plant species was carried out to show the potential for phytoremediation and its mechanisms. Results from two years of monitoring (2020–2021) indicated mean total nitrogen (TN) retention efficiencies of 7.2–60.14 % and 9.5–55.6 % for total phosphorus (TP) in the studied vegetated urban streams. Nutrient retention efficiencies showed temporal variations, which depended on seasonal temperature. Mass balance analysis indicated that macrophyte assimilation, sediment adsorption, and microbial transformation accounted for 10.31–41.74 %, 0.84–3.00 %, and 6.92–48.24 % removal of the inlet TN loading, respectively. Hydrophyte detritus decay induced alterations in physicochemical parameters while significantly increasing the N and P levels in the overlying water and sediment. Decay rates varied among macrophytes in the order of HV (0.00436 g day−1) > MA (0.00284 g day−1) > PC (0.00251 g day−1) > OJ (0.00135 g day−1) > TL (0.00095 g day−1) > PAU (0.00057 g day−1). 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed an increase in microbial species richness and diversity in the early phase of litter decay. The abundances of denitrification (nirS and nirK) and nitrification (AOA and AOB) genes also increased in the early stage and then decreased during the decay process. Results of this study conducted in seven urban streams in northern China demonstrate the direct effects of hydrophytes in encouraging nutrient transformation and stream self-purification. Results also demonstrate that macrophyte detritus decay could drive not only the nutrient conversions but also the microbial community structure and activities in sediment-water systems. Consequently, to manage internal sources and conversions of nutrients, hydrophytic detritus (e.g., floating/submerged macrophytes) must be suppressed and harvested.
2. Assessing on-road emissions from urban buses in different traffic congestion scenarios by integrating real-world driving, traffic, and emissions data
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 863, 10 March 2023, 161002
In recent years, the integration of traffic simulators and emission models has become the most preferred option for evaluating vehicle emissions in different traffic states. However, the definition of a ‘traffic condition’ is often subjective, as driving patterns can vary significantly with the spatial domain of study. Alternatively, the implementation of ‘Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems’ has led to a growing variety of devices being installed, both on the road and in public transport vehicles for monitoring traffic-flow conditions and vehicle speeds in cities. This study purposed an original approach for integrating real-world emissions (as an micro-emission model), real-world driving profiles, and city traffic sensor data to assess the effects of traffic congestion at the route level on emissions from urban buses in Madrid (Spain). The definition of the traffic scenarios was based on a K-means clustering analysis by linking stationary (from city sensors) and dynamic (from bus driving profiles) congestion indicators. In parallel, a micro-emissions model based on vehicle-specific power (VSP) methodology was used to model second-by-second CO2 and NOx emissions from individual trips of the diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. Finally, the clustering and modelled emissions data were combined.
A comparison of the free flow and the severe congestion scenarios showed that the average speed of the route decreased by approximately 50 %, and the number of stops per kilometre increased by a multiple of 1.5; furthermore, the CO2 and NOx emissions from buses increased by approximately 50 % and 85 %, respectively. The diesel bus showed a lower sensitivity to variations in the congestion level at the route level, although the low-NOx emissions from the CNG buses were evident for all traffic scenarios. The results of this study, based on extensive real-world data, can be used to develop high-resolution vehicle emissions inventories.
3. Characteristics of the extreme precipitation and its impacts on ecosystem services in the Wuhan Urban Agglomeration
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 864, 15 March 2023, 161045
Summer extreme precipitation is one of the most frequent, intense, and influential extreme weather events that occurs frequently in the Wuhan Urban Agglomeration (WUA). Preventing meteorological disasters and coping with climate change necessitate understanding the characteristics and causes of extreme precipitation and its impact on ecosystems. In this study, the spatiotemporal characteristics of summer extreme precipitation in the WUA are analysed from 1961 to 2020. Then, NCEP reanalysis data and the relevant circulation index are used to explore the causes of extreme precipitation. Finally, how extreme precipitation influences key ecosystem services, such as water yield, water regulation, and soil conservation, is investigated. The results reveal that (1) extreme precipitation in the WUA has shown an obvious upwards trend over the past 60 years. Huanggang, Xianning, Huangshi, Wuhan, and E'zhou city demonstrate the highest values. The extreme precipitation increased significantly after 1980s, especially the R97.5P and PRCPTOT with change rate of 12.1 mm/10a and 18.82 mm/10a respectively. (2) Atmospheric circulation variation is a dominant factor affecting extreme precipitation in the WUA and causes the meridional distribution of the "+ − +” wave train in eastern China. The intensity and location of the Western Pacific subtropical high are closely related to extreme precipitation. Furthermore, the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon circulation is also conducive to the occurrence of extreme precipitation. (3) The spatial distribution of water yield and runoff retention in abnormal extreme precipitation years are similar to the variation patterns of the total amount of extreme precipitation. Water yield and runoff retention in high-value extreme precipitation years are higher than that in low-value extreme precipitation years, while soil conservation shows no difference. In addition, ecosystem services have a synergistic relationship in high-value areas and a trade-off relationship in low-value areas. This study can contribute to the understanding of extreme precipitation in the WUA and its interaction with ecosystem services.
4. Occurrence of multiple respiratory viruses in wastewater in Queensland, Australia: Potential for community disease surveillance
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 864, 15 March 2023, 161023
The early warning and tracking of COVID-19 prevalence in the community provided by wastewater surveillance has highlighted its potential for much broader viral disease surveillance. In this proof-of-concept study, 46 wastewater samples from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Queensland, Australia, were analyzed for the presence and abundance of 13 respiratory viruses, and the results were compared with reported clinical cases. The viruses were concentrated using the adsorption-extraction (AE) method, and extracted nucleic acids were analyzed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Among the viruses tested, bocavirus (BoV), parechovirus (PeV), rhinovirus A (RhV A) and rhinovirus B (RhV B) were detected in all wastewater samples. All the tested viruses except influenza B virus (IBV) were detected in wastewater sample from at least one WWTP. BoV was detected with the greatest concentration (4.96–7.22 log10 GC/L), followed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (4.08–6.46 log10 GC/L), RhV A (3.95–5.63 log10 GC/L), RhV B (3.74–5.61 log10 GC/L), and PeV (3.17–5.32 log10 GC/L). Influenza viruses and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are notifiable conditions in Queensland, allowing the gene copy (GC) concentrations to be compared with reported clinical cases. Significant correlations (ρ = 0.60, p < 0.01 for IAV and ρ = 0.53, p < 0.01 for RSV) were observed when pooled wastewater influenza A virus (IAV) and RSV log10 GC/L concentrations were compared to log10 clinical cases among the four WWTP catchments. The positive predictive value for the presence of IAV and RSV in wastewater was 97 % for both IAV and RSV clinical cases within the four WWTP catchments. The overall accuracy of wastewater analysis for predicting clinical cases of IAV and RSV was 97 and 90 %, respectively. This paper lends credibility to the application of wastewater surveillance to monitor respiratory viruses of various genomic characteristics, with potential uses for increased surveillance capabilities and as a tool in understanding the dynamics of disease circulation in the communities.
5. Improving performance of pilot-scale ecological bed coupled with microbial electrochemical system for urban tail water treatment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 865, 20 March 2023, 161289
Recycling urban tail water for ecological base flow and landscape use offers a reliable solution for the problem of water resource shortage. But the long-term direct discharge of urban tail water can aggravate the eutrophication of surface water based on the present drainage standard of sewage plant. It is of great significance to develop low-cost and low-energy ecological technologies as transitional region between urban tail water and surface water. In this study, a pilot-scale ecological bed coupled with microbial electrochemical system (EB-MES) was established to treat urban tail water deeply. The system was operated for 96 days from June to September. Average TN removal efficiency in EB-MES under the condition of submerged plant coupled closed-circuit MES could reach 59.0 ± 16.6 %, which was 82.7 % and 38.1 % higher than that of open-circuit EB-MES and MES without plants, respectively. Microbial community structure testing indicated that multiple nitrogen metabolic mechanisms occurred in the system, including nitrification, electrode autotrophic denitrification, anammox, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, and aerobic denitrification, which results in better denitrification efficiency under tail water. Our research provided a novel ecological technology with advantages of high-efficiency, low-energy and low-carbon and verified the feasibility in pilot scale for application in the advanced treatment of urban tail water.
6. Variation in pollution status, sources, and risks of soil heavy metals in regions with different levels of urbanization
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 866, 25 March 2023, 161355
Soil heavy metal (HM) pollution is an increasing threat to ecosystem integrity and human health with rapid urbanization. Nevertheless, how soil HMs vary with the process of urbanization remains unclear. Here we used index evaluation, spatial analysis, and a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model to determine the pollution characteristics and sources of eight soil HMs (Mn, Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, and Ni) among regions with different urbanization levels (urban area, suburb, and ecoregion) in Baoding City, Northern China. We also assessed the risks posed to the ecosystem and human health using risk assessment models. The results indicated that the mean levels of Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in the study area exceeded the soil environmental quality standards by 10.7 %, 10.7 %, 12.5 %, 23.2 %, and 3.57 %, respectively. A pronounced regional spatial distribution was discovered with high levels in suburban areas. Both the geo-accumulation index and potential ecological risk index revealed significantly higher HM contamination in suburban areas than in urban or ecoregion areas. Source apportionment based on the PMF model and correlation analysis showed that soil HMs in suburban areas primarily originated from agricultural activity, industrial sources, and natural sources. Those in urban soils originated from industrial sources, urban traffic, and natural sources, whereas those in ecoregions derived from natural sources and agricultural activity. The complex sources of soil HMs in suburban areas resulted in the highest carcinogenic risks to children health, followed by the ecoregion, but not in urban areas. This study identified the differences in pollution levels, sources, and risks of soil HMs among regions with different urbanization levels and can guide future efforts to mitigate and manage soil HM pollution during urbanization.
7. Sources, chemical components, and toxicological responses of size segregated urban air PM samples in high air pollution season in Guangzhou, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 865, 20 March 2023, 161092
The sources, sizes, components, and toxicological responses of particulate matter (PM) have demonstrated remarkable spatiotemporal variability. However, associations between components, sources, and toxicological effects in different-sized PM remain unclear. The purposes of this study were to 1) determine the sources of PM chemical components, 2) investigate the associations between components and toxicology of PM from Guangzhou high air pollution season. We collected size-segregated PM samples (PM10–2.5, PM2.5–1, PM1–0.2, PM0.2) from December 2017 to March 2018 in Guangzhou. PM sources and components were analyzed. RAW264.7 mouse macrophages were treated with PM samples for 24 h followed by measurements of toxicological responses. The concentrations of PM10–2.5 and PM1–0.2 were relatively high in all samples. Water-soluble ions and PAHs were more abundant in smaller-diameter PM, while metallic elements were more enriched in larger-diameter PM. Traffic exhaust, soil dust, and biomass burning/petrochemical were the most important sources of PAHs, metals and ions, respectively. The main contributions to PM were soil dust, coal combustion, and biomass burning/petrochemical. Exposure to PM10–2.5 induced the most significant reduction of cell mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress and inflammatory response, whereas DNA damage, an increase of Sub G1/G0 population, and impaired cell membrane integrity were most evident with PM1–0.2 exposure. There were moderate or strong correlations between most single chemicals and almost all toxicological endpoints as well as between various toxicological outcomes. Our findings highlight those various size-segregated PM-induced toxicological effects in cells, and identify chemical components and sources of PM that play the key role in adverse intracellular responses. Although fine and ultrafine PM have attracted much attention, the inflammatory damage caused by coarse PM cannot be ignored.
8. Occurrence, spatial distribution, and potential risks of organic micropollutants in urban surface waters from qinghai, northwest China
Chemosphere, Volume 318, March 2023, 137819
Lack of knowledge on the destiny of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in the Tibetan Plateau region of China prevents the public from being aware of the need for protecting these unique aquatic ecosystems that are precious water resources and source areas of the Yellow River. To address this knowledge gap, this study systematically investigated the multi-residue analysis, distribution, and potential risks of six types of OMPs, namely, neonicotinoid pesticides (NEOs), fungicides, organophosphate esters (OPEs), organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), psychoactive substances (PSs), and antidepressants (ADs), in surface waters of major cities in Qinghai. A total of 31 compounds, consisting of 8 NEOs, 1 fungicide, 12 OPEs, 2 OPPs, 5 PSs, and 3 ADs, were detected in >50% of the sites, showing their ubiquitous nature in the study area. Results showed that the total OMP concentration in surface water was 28.3–908 ng/L, and OPEs were the dominant composition (48.6%–97.4%). The risk quotient values of the detected diazinon and dursban regularly exceeded 1 for aquatic organisms at all sampling sites, indicating moderate–high chronic ecological risk. The joint probability curves showed that dursban and NEOs have higher risk levels than other OMPs. Although the results of the non-carcinogenic total hazard quotient of the OMPs in the surface water was less than 1 in all age groups and the carcinogenic risk was lower than the negligible risk level, the potential risks to children and infants were considerably greater and should not be underestimated. In addition to pollutant concentration and exposure duration, ingestion rate and body weight (BW) are also important factors affecting health risk, with BW having a negative effect. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this report is the first to describe OMP pollution in Qinghai, and the results provide new insight into the ecological security of the water resources of the Tibetan Plateau.
9. Synthesis, characterization and application of dewatered municipal sludge-based creamsite and its phosphorus adsorption characteristics
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 391, 10 March 2023, 136216
Direct utilization of sludge-based biochar for phosphorus recovery exists numerous deficiencies (secondary pollution, poor stability, etc.). This study further explored dewatered sludge/bentonite ceramsite application for large-scale use of sludge-based biochar with low potential environmental risk. The best parameters for optimized ceramsite (SBC 900) were concluded as follows: mass ratio (dewatered sludge: bentonite: kaolin: starch) was 5:5:2:2 with 5% Na2SiO3, preheating temperature = 400
C, sintering temperature = 900
C. Batch experiments show that the optimized ceramsite could significantly remove phosphorus (Qe: 4.29 mg g−1) in a wide pH range (4–10). Column studies with quantitative analysis demonstrated that SBC 900 as fillings could effectively control phosphorus effluent during advanced treatment process. Breakthrough curves of SBC 900 from column experiments were described well by Thomas model (QT: 0.3691 mg g−1) and Yan model (QY: 0.1417 mg g−1). Compared to other factors, human acid (HA) is the key factor restricting advanced treatment of secondary effluent. Saturated ceramsite could be simply separated for subsequent utilization (fertilizer or building materials) to shift solid wastes toward marketable resources. This study provided another safer sludge resource utilization and effluent advanced treatment view which could be a beneficial and sustainable solution for sludge reclamation.
10. Thermal co-treatment of aluminum dross and municipal solid waste incineration fly ash: Mineral transformation, crusting prevention, detoxification, and low-carbon cementitious material preparation
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 329, 1 March 2023, 117090
Harmless disposal and resource utilization of hazardous industrial wastes has become an important issue with the green development of human society. However, resource utilization of hazardous solid wastes, such as the production of cementitious materials, is usually accompanied by a pretreatment process to remove adverse impurities that contaminate the final product. In this study, aluminum dross (AD) was thermally co-treated with another hazardous waste, municipal solid incineration fly ash (MSWI-FA), to synergistically solidify F and Na, control leaching of heavy metals, and remove chloride impurities. Significant crusting was observed when AD was thermally treated by itself, but not when AD and MSWI-FA were thermally co-treated. In the process of co-thermal treatment, the remaining Cl, Na, and K contents were reduced to as low as 0.3%, 1.8%, and 0.6%, respectively. CaO and SiO2 in MSWI-FA reacted with Na3AlF6 and Al2O3 in AD, and formed CaF2 and Na6(AlSiO4)6, which contributed to the prevention of crusting and limited the leaching concentrations of F and Na to below detection thresholds and 270.6 mg/L, respectively. In addition, heavy metals were well solidified, and dioxins were fully decomposed during thermal treatment. Finally, a sulfoaluminate cementitious material (SACM) with high early- and later-age strengths was successfully created via synergetic complementarity using thermally co-treated AD and MSWI-FA together with other solid wastes. Collectively, this study outlines a promising method for the efficient and sustainable utilization of AD and MSWI-FA.
11. Distribution, source, risk and phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in typical urban landscape waters recharged by reclaimed water
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 330, 15 March 2023, 117214
A park that had used reclaimed water as the sole water supply for fourteen years, was selected to analyze the distribution, sources and risks of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in waters and sediments. The effects of phytoremediation were investigated in waterbodies classified as phytoremediation, transitional and non-phytoremediation areas. Diagnostic ratio (DR) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to analyze the sources of PAHs, while risk quotient (RQ) was used as risk assessment tool. Results showed that ∑PAH concentrations in sediments ranged from 29.4 to 1245.6 ng‧g−1, with average of 354.3 ng‧g−1, corresponding to a moderate pollution level. The concentration of PAHs in water ranged from 10.6 to 326.3 ng‧L−1, with average of 147.2 ng‧L−1, corresponding to a low pollution level. The ∑PAHs in sediments showed a downward trend from northwest to southeast along with the water flow direction, with average values of 459.5, 362.9 and 246.1 ng‧L−1 in the upstream, midstream and downstream, respectively. In contrast, PAH concentrations in water were consistent with recreational activities in the urban park area. There were 95% of water samples and 72% of sediment samples obtaining the Ant/(Ant + Phe) > 0.1 and Flu/(Flu + Pyr) > 0.5, indicating that coal combustion was the major source of PAHs in both the water and sediment. The RQ∑PAH(NCs) values in water and sediment were all between 1 and 800, while RQ∑PAH(MPCs) reached equal to 0, suggesting that ∑PAHs presented a low ecological risk. Acenaphthene accounted for 28.4% of RQ(NCs), and became the most risk PAH in water column. Aquatic plants effectively removed high-ring PAHs from water and middle-ring PAHs from sediments, reducing the overall risks posed by PAHs.
12. Characteristics and fate of plastic pollution in urban stormwater ponds
Environmental Pollution, Volume 320, 1 March 2023, 121052
Stormwater runoff is often assumed to be an important pathway for microplastics from the terrestrial to the marine environment, although few studies have attempted to quantify the significance of this pathway or the interactions between stormwater infrastructure and plastic pollution. The objective of this study was to determine what factors influence the concentrations and behaviors of microplastics in stormwater ponds. Samples were taken from the water and bottom sediments of six stormwater ponds in Tampa (Florida, USA) using a neuston net and a sediment dredger. They were processed using a combination of density separations, visual sorting, and Raman spectroscopy. Concentrations ranged by several orders of magnitude between sites and rounds of sampling (0.0–55.5 items/m3 in water, 2.5–203.0 items/kg dry weight in sediment) but were comparable to other studies. The sediments of fenced and residential sites had significantly lower plastic count concentrations, compared to unfenced sites with mixed land uses. The ratio of impervious drainage area to pond surface area was found to be positively correlated with sediment concentrations. Particle shapes in water were more variable than those found in sediments, suggesting that regular-shaped plastics tend to settle first. Circularity was identified as an important parameter in determining settling behaviors. Shape characteristics were similar to those observed in a downstream river, suggesting that degradation leading to the observed shapes occurred prior to entering the ponds. This study highlights the importance of stormwater infrastructure in understanding plastic transport and how plastic shape characteristics can impact their behavior in the environment.
13. Size-resolved gas-particle partitioning characteristics of typical semi-volatile organic compounds in urban atmosphere
Environmental Pollution, Volume 320, 1 March 2023, 121101
Understanding particle size distribution and size-resolved gas-particle partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) is important for characterizing their fate in atmosphere. However, the size-resolved gas-particle partitioning characteristics of SVOCs has not been adequately considered. To address this issue, the present study collected gaseous and size-fractioned particulate samples both in and outside of schools, offices, and residences in three districts of different urbanization levels in a megacity, Guangzhou, South China during two seasons. Typical SVOCs, including 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), six organophosphate esters and seven phthalic acid esters were measured. Emission sources, physicochemical properties, and environmental conditions at the sampling sites considerably impacted the spatiotemporal distribution patterns and particle size distribution of target SVOCs. Not all observed gas-particle partition coefficients (Kp) of target SVOCs were negatively correlated with subcooled liquid-vapor pressures (PL0), probably because certain factors, such as the non-exchangeable part of the particle-bound SVOCs, were not considered in traditional gas-particle partition theories. Particle size was an important factor affecting gas-particle partitioning. Adsorption was the dominant mechanism for PAHs with high molecular weight in different particle modes. A new model was established to predict size-resolved Kp of PAHs with high molecular weight based on PL0 and particle size.
14. Air pollution and its associated health risks before and after COVID-19 in Shaanxi Province, China
Environmental Pollution, Volume 320, 1 March 2023, 121090
Air pollution is a serious environmental problem that damages public health. In the present study, we used the segmentation function to improve the health risk–based air quality index (HAQI) and named it new HAQI (NHAQI). To investigate the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of air pollutants and the associated health risks in Shaanxi Province before (Period I, 2015–2019) and after (Period II, 2020–2021) COVID-19. The six criteria pollutants were analyzed between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2021, using the air quality index (AQI), aggregate AQI (AAQI), and NHAQI. The results showed that compared with AAQI and NHAQI, AQI underestimated the combined effects of multiple pollutants. The average concentrations of the six criteria pollutants were lower in Period II than in Period I due to reductions in anthropogenic emissions, with the concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm diameter), PM10 (PM ≤ 10 μm diameter) SO2, NO2, O3, and CO decreased by 23.5%, 22.5%, 45.7%, 17.6%, 2.9%, and 41.6%, respectively. In Period II, the excess risk and the number of air pollution–related deaths decreased considerably by 46.5% and 49%, respectively. The cumulative population distribution estimated using the NHAQI revealed that 61% of the total number of individuals in Shaanxi Province were exposed to unhealthy air during Period I, whereas this proportion decreased to 16% during Period II. Although overall air quality exhibited substantial improvements, the associated health risks in winter remained high.
15. Microplastics in rivers along an urban-rural gradient in an urban agglomeration: Correlation with land use, potential sources and pathways
Environmental Pollution, Volume 321, 15 March 2023, 121096
Microplastics are ubiquitous and affect all environments, including rivers. In recent years the number of studies about microplastics in rivers has strongly increased. But still many questions exist regarding sources, pathways, and the role of land use patterns. In this study the relationship between microplastics abundance and anthropogenic factors (population density, urbanization, land use types), as well as the potential role of storm sewers as pathways in tributaries of the Wu River in Taichung, central Taiwan, were studied. Two river catchments of the Dali River were studied in greater detail to investigate the influence of land use on microplastics abundance along an urban-rural gradient, and to observe the change of microplastics abundance in the transition from rural to urban areas. Samples were taken from 41 different locations in urban and rural areas using a manta net with a mesh size of 0.3 mm. Results show abundances ranging from 0 pcs/m³ in unpopulated rural areas up to 230 pcs/m³ in densely populated urban centers, and are positively correlated with population density. Remarkably, a sharp increase in microplastics abundance was observed at the transition from rural to urban areas, which coincides with the appearance of storm sewers. Land use analysis revealed that microplastics abundance positively correlates with the size of industrial, residential and traffic areas in the catchment areas, and negatively correlates with the size of forest areas. Source areas for microplastics in the studied rivers are likely residential and commercial areas. Furthermore, the results of this study show that correlations between microplastics abundances and population density or land use patterns along urban-rural gradients are not trivial. Strength of correlations can depend on local factors or how well urban-rural gradients are developed. Absence of correlations need to be considered carefully, as existing correlations might be masked by the above-mentioned factors.
16. Analysis of the coupling coordination degree of the Society-Economy-Resource-Environment system in urban areas: Case study of the Jingjinji urban agglomeration, China
Ecological Indicators, Volume 146, February 2023, 109851
The fast growth of China's economy and society has brought severe consequences on the country’s environmental quality and natural resources. In order to overcome these obstacles, the Chinese government proposed the concept of high-quality development in 2017, aiming to promote the comprehensive, sustainable and balanced development of society, economy, resources and the environment. Exploring the interactions within the Social-Economic-Resource-Environment (SERE) system in urban agglomeration regions can help policy-makers achieve high-quality sustainable urban development. On account of the concept of high-quality development and the theory of complex systems, we constructed the SERE system. Taking the Jingjinji (JJJ) urban agglomeration from 2011 to 2019 as a research sample, we first evaluated the comprehensive quality of the SERE subsystems at two scale levels using the entropy method. Then, the level of coordinated development among the subsystems was studied by building a coupling coordination degree (CCD)model. Finally, the effect of the four subsystems on the CCD was analyzed by using a panel regression model. The results of the study found that first, the SERE system’s comprehensive development quality at the scale of the whole JJJ urban agglomeration showed an upward trend from 2011 to 2019. The resource subsystem always contributed the most, the economic and social subsystem contributed moderately, and the environmental subsystem contributed the least. Secondly, the comprehensive quality of all cities’ SERE subsystems showed different degrees of growth, with notable spatial differences. The comprehensive quality levels of social, economic and resource subsystems in Beijing and Tianjin were significantly higher than those in Hebei. Thirdly, the SERE system’s CCD in each city showed various growth tendencies. The proportion of severely unbalanced cities decreased from 84.62% to 61.54% during the study period, and regional development became more coordinated. However, there were still obvious spatial differences; Beijing and Tianjin consistently performed better, and the scores of cities in Hebei province were generally low. Fourthly, the degree of coupling coordination among the subsystems was positively correlated with their comprehensive quality. The elasticity of the environmental subsystem was the largest, which was essential to the coordinated development of the SERE system. These findings can offer governments valuable references for adopting appropriate policy measures which promote high-quality, sustainable and coordinated urban development.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Formation of microplastic fibers and fibrils during abrasion of a representative set of 12 polyester textiles
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 862, 1 March 2023, 160758
Microplastic fibers (MPFs) released from synthetic textiles have been found to be a major source of microplastic in the environment. There is increasing evidence available that MPFs released during washing were likely formed during the manufacturing stage. However, real-life use of textiles is often associated with textile-on-textile abrasion, and the first evidence is available that MPFs and finer microplastic fiber fragments (fibrils) are formed during abrasion. In this study, we characterized the formation of MPFs and fibrils from a representative set of 12 polyester textiles after abrasion tests conducted with a Martindale tester. We also investigated the influence of rub intensity and the extractability of MPFs and fibrils from the abraded fabrics. For all textiles, the MPFs extracted after abrasion showed the same diameter as the fibers in non-abraded textiles (10–20 μm), while the extracted fibrils were much thinner (3–5 μm). The variability in the structure of the different polyester textiles led to a broad range of MPF and fibrils extracted during the first wash after 5000 rubs. One gram of textile released between 4900 and 640,000 MPFs and between 0 and 350,000 fibrils with an average fibril/MPF ratio of 0.8. The total number of MPFs and fibrils formed during abrasion was positively correlated with the increase in the number of rubs up to 10,000 times. Visible pilling on the textile surface was an important indicator for the formation of MPFs and fibrils. Our study revealed that textile abrasion is a critical, realistic, and overlooked mechanism for the formation of MPFs and fibrils, as abraded textiles (after 5000 times rubs) can release more than ten times the number of MPFs and fibrils compared to washing only.
2. Health risk assessment of inorganic and organic constituents of the coarse and fine PM in an industrialized region of Brazil
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 865, 20 March 2023, 161042
A health risk assessment of inorganic and organic species associated with coarse and fine particulate matter (PM) was conducted in Southeastern Brazil. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 samples were collected, and their elemental (metals/metalloids) and organic (PAHs) composition were determined by EDXRF and GC–MS. The health risks were determined through hazard quotient (HQ) and cancer risk (CR). It was found that different elements and routes of exposure lead to different health risks, even for the PM concentration in compliance with air quality standards. The major routes of exposure for adults were inhalation and dermal contact whereas for children were ingestion and dermal contact. High non-cancer risks (HQ) caused by Cl and Fe exposure were associated with coarser fractions, PM10 and TSP, respectively, whereas high HQ for Se, Sb, and V exposure were associated with PM2.5. HQ values for children were near twice that for adults, and CR values were 65 % to 130 % higher for children than for adults. CR posed by PAHs was negligible. The results highlighted that the HQ might be over- or underestimated depending on the form in which the element Cl is determined (elemental or ion), reinforcing the need for an embracing chemical characterization of the PM. High HQ values were found related to the exposure to some elements present in the TSP, showing that this PM fraction should not be neglected.
3. Pollution and health-risk assessments of Cr-contaminated soils from a tannery waste lagoon, Hebei, north China: With emphasis on Cr speciation
Chemosphere, Volume 317, March 2023, 137908
In this paper, heavy metals (i.e., V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Sb) in soils from a tannery waste lagoon, Hebei, north China were investigated. Element concentrates were determined by a portable X-ray fluorescence in situ and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the lab. Two sets of indexes, including geological accumulation index, contamination factor, and pollution load index, and hazard quotient and total carcinogenic risk were adopted to evaluate the pollution and health-risk of heavy metals. A scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to observe chromium occurrence and speciation. With an average of 6493.11 mg/kg, chromium contents in the lagoon soils reached up to 12971.19 mg/kg, 211-times higher than the threshold of Chinese soils (61.00 mg/kg). Elevated Cr contents resulted in significantly high pollution and noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks in the studied area. Chromium in most soils occurred predominately as Cr3+ (60–74%), and to a lesser extent, Cr6+. The mechanism responsible for decreasing Cr6+ percentages in soils with increasing depth was summarized: Cr6+ favors aqueous environment; soil moisture decreased with increasing depth; in soils especially in the lower portion, Cr6+ was reduced by Fe0 and Fe2, transforming into Cr3+ and Fe3+. In addition, the alkaline condition promoted Cr3+ to precipitate, resulting more Cr3+ absorbing in soils. The intimate association of Cr and Fe in soils (i.e., Cr mainly occurred in Fe oxides and dolomite) further confirmed our assumptions. A combined application of microorganism (e.g., Aeromonas hydrophila) and biochar (prepared from maize stalk or peanut shells) were recommended to alleviate Cr pollution in the soils.
4. Converting wastes to resource: Preparation of NiO@γ-Al2O3 sludge composite from aluminum-containing sludge for cadmium removal from wastewater
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 392, 15 March 2023, 136335
Solid sludge waste and heavy metal water pollution have attracted great interest due to the adverse impacts on the ecological environment, which remains a significant challenge to environmental protection. Herein, with the concept of converting wastes to resources, this work presents a general procedure to fabricate NiO@γ-Al2O3 sludge composite derived from aluminum-containing sludge for efficient cadmium removal. During the procedure, the unstable metal compounds were converted into chemically stable metal oxides, and the organic components in sludge are decomposed via high-temperature treatment. Then, the NiO@γ-Al2O3 sludge composite was obtained by in situ growth of NiO nanocrystals using the calcined sludge as raw materials, followed by calcination to form a porous structure. The as-obtained NiO@γ-Al2O3 sludge composite with hierarchical porosity comprises self-assembled NiO nanosheets with sizes ranging from 1 to 3 μm. Compared with raw sludge particles, the specific surface area of NiO@γ-Al2O3 sludge composite is enhanced significantly (116.27 m2/g), revealing that the preparation procedure is favorable for the improvement of the surface properties of the sludge. The cadmium adsorption results showed that the maximum cadmium adsorption capacity of the sludge composite could attain 160.12 mg/g, and cadmium removal efficiency could reach 99.9% with an optimal dose of 1.5 g/L. Meanwhile, the sludge composite showed high adsorption capacity at the neutral pH condition, which was attributed to the exchange of cadmium ions in solution with the surface protons on the adsorbent. Significantly, a simple regeneration operation was used for the desorption of cadmium ions to realize the regeneration of adsorbents, and the regenerated sludge composite can be recyclable for continuous use. This work provides a waste-to-resource strategy for resource utilization of solid waste sludge and presents an adsorbent material with high surface activity for cadmium adsorption, which may inspire the development and application of other solid waste for wastewater treatment.
5. Dynamic material flow analysis of Chinese ethylene production processes and optimal pathway exploration with potential environmental-economic impacts
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 392, 15 March 2023, 136282
China is expected to become the largest ethylene producer globally; environmental problems related with traditional ethylene production process of Chinese petrochemical industry will be further stern. This study aims to propose a feasible and optimal ethylene production expansion pathway to improve the trade-off between the environment and economy. A novel approach was adopted with material-energy-value flow analysis integration by combining dynamic scenario analysis. According to the results of scenario analysis, cleaner and lightweight production processes optimization achieved by adopting the alternative ethylene production process mix alleviated environmental pressure and achieved a weak decoupling of the low-carbon economy. A 26.1% increase in carbon productivity was achieved compared with the baseline scenario, whereas the coal to ethylene route should be phased-out, as more than 90% of the pollutants are generated by 10%–17% of the coal to ethylene facilities. However, CO2 emissions from ethylene will inevitably increase along with doubling ethylene production. An imbalance in pollutant generation also emerges if large-scale naphtha is exclusively promoted for ethylene plant implementation. The study provides methodological support for investigating feasible roadmaps for key product capacity expansion, and has practical meaning for high-quality industrial development domestically and globally.
6. Remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soil with two organic acids: Washing efficiency, recovery performance, and benefit analysis
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 393, 20 March 2023, 136235
There remains a need to develop efficient and recoverable washing reagents to repair heavy metal-contaminated soil. However, the past study of recovery only considered conventional chelating agents, hindering the sustainable development of new reagents. In this study, two new-reagents, organic phosphonic acid (DTPMPA) and polycarboxylic acid (AA/AMPS/HPA), simultaneously investigated their ability to remove heavy metal and recover by electrochemical to improve reagent sustainability. Results indicated that the metal removals were influenced by the washing solution concentrations, pH, and contact time. The maximum removal by DTPMPA was 72% Cd and 33% Zn, were higher than those of AA/AMPS/HPA (concentration, 5%; pH, 3.0; and contact time, 120 min). The strong chelation of the phosphonic acid group of DTPMPA binds more metal ions. Characterization results demonstrated that both reagents were successfully recovered using electrochemical methods. While AA/AMPS/HPA had a better recovery performance because of electrostatic adsorption interactions with the metal ions, the rewashing ability of Cd and Zn was 88% and 64% of the fresh solution. Moreover, in benefit analysis, AA/AMPS/HPA showed better circular economy and long-term sustainability properties. Therefore, AA/AMPS/HPA is a feasible remediation reagents of the heavy-metal-contaminated soil with both efficiency and sustainability. The development of reagent takes into account efficiency and reuseable simultaneously, showing great economic benefits.
7. Striving for a less toxic production of metallized textiles - Environmental impact assessment
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 394, 25 March 2023, 136265
Metallized textiles are novel materials that can be used in high value added functional goods, such as Assistive Technologies (AT) products. Potential issue with innovative metallization of textiles is the toxicity and environmental impact of the substances used in the process. To investigate this issue, this paper utilizes an original methodology of linking the analysis of toxicity of chemicals used in the textile metallization with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the metallization process itself. This is done from the perspective of three relevant impact categories: global warming, toxicity and water use, for which, three methods were selected: IPCC et al., 2013 GWP 100a; USEtox 2 and Available WAter Remaining (AWARE). The LCA uses a mix of primary and secondary data and three cradle-to-gate scenarios were chosen for calculating results - first presenting just the metallization process itself, second taking into account alternative impregnation process and third including metallized surfaces - woven cotton and polyester. While the most toxic chemical identified was formaldehyde, the results of the LCA shows top processes contributing to global warming is the electricity consumption, the use of polyurethane with 0.996 kg CO2 eq. and EDTA with a result of 0.816 kg CO2 eq. The greatest impact on human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity comes from copper (II) chloride mostly used in the plating phase. Moreover polyurethane used in the impregnation phase leaves the largest water footprint of 0.984 m3. When taking into account the metallized surface scenario, the impact of cotton was high for global warming and water use and the impact of polyester was relatively low for all impact categories. The main conclusions of the research relate to the identification of cleaner production methods that could reduce the environmental footprint of the metallization of textiles. They include, among others: development of technology that can significantly increase resource productivity through selective metallization of conductive tracks; use of alternative formaldehyde-free and polyurethane-free chemicals; use of a closed loop system for water remaining in the technological process.
8. How the new energy industry contributes to carbon reduction? —Evidence from China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 329, 1 March 2023, 117066
New energy is an inevitable choice to cope with global climate change. China has invested heavily in new energy, but it still faces enormous pressure to reduce emissions. The effectiveness and path of new energy industry development still need to be solved. This paper studies the relationship between the development of new energy industry and carbon emissions. A theoretical model of new energy firms’ production behaviour was constructed, reflecting that the internal carbon emissions of the new energy industry mainly depend on its cost structure and R&D intensity. Specifically, part of the carbon emission caused by scale effect comes from direct capacity construction, and the other part comes from the production-cost effect of R&D. Based on the provincial panel data in China from 2005 to 2019, empirical tests are carried out from two aspects of scale effect and technology effect. Results show that the scale expansion has an inverted U-shaped relationship with carbon emissions, which is supported by the regression with GDP as the threshold variable. The effect of new energy technologies in reducing emissions is continuous. The threshold for technology to play a role in reducing emissions is smaller than the threshold for scale. The findings explain the expansion of the new energy industry in the early stages may lead to an increase in carbon emissions. Our study provides important insights that the scale and technology are two dimensions that cannot be ignored in the process of energy transformation. It is necessary to act in the reasonable range and pay attention to the accumulation of technology innovation and the orderly expansion of production capacity.
9. Cross-regional collaborative governance in the process of pollution industry transfer: The case of enclave parks in China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 330, 15 March 2023, 117113
To promote the effectiveness of cross-regional collaborative governance of pollution firm transfer, a stochastic evolutionary game model among three sectors (flying out parks, pollution firms, and flying in parks) was proposed. According to the three policy goals, three paths of collaborative governance were investigated using numerical simulations. Our findings focus on the following three aspects: (i) If policymakers want to urge more parks and pollution firms in the three sectors to choose a cooperation strategy, additional relocation subsidies from superior governments for pollution firms have the most remarkable effect. However, excessive subsidies will push flying out parks to inhibit the transfer of pollution firms. (ii) If policymakers intendto urge parks and pollution firms to cooperate quickly, increasing the environmental costs of firms will play key role. Notably, even if the environmental costs are low, they can still considerably and positively affect choosing a transfer strategy of for pollution firms. (iii) If policymakers expect defection parks and pollution firms to be as few as possible during the regulation process, the cost-sharing mechanism with only two sectors (flying in parks and flying out parks) is invalid. Introducing higher-level departments or other sectors for cost-sharing to escape the current dilemma is necessary.
10. The impact of severe pollution from smelter emissions on carbon and metal accumulation in peatlands in Ontario, Canada
Environmental Pollution, Volume 320, 1 March 2023, 121102
Peatlands are unique habitats that function as a carbon (C) sink and an archive of atmospheric metal deposition. Sphagnum mosses are key components of peatlands but can be adversely impacted by air pollution potentially affecting rates of C and metal accumulation in peat. In this study we evaluate how the loss of Sphagnum in peatlands close to a copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) smelter in Sudbury, Ontario affected C accumulation and metal profiles. The depth of accumulated peat formed during the 100+ year period of smelter activities also increased with distance from the smelter. Concurrently, peat bulk density decreased with distance from the smelter, which resulted in relatively similar average rates of apparent C accumulation (32–46 g/m2/yr). These rates are within the range of published values despite the historically high pollution loadings. Surface peat close to the smelters was greatly enriched in Cu and Ni, and Cu profiles in dated peat cores generally coincide with known pollution histories much better than Ni that increased well before the beginning of smelter activities likely a result of post-deposition mobility in peat cores.
11. Characterization of microalgal toxicants in the sediments from an industrial area: Application of advanced effect-directed analysis with multiple endpoint bioassays
Environment International, Volume 173, March 2023, 107833
Microalgal toxicants in sediments from an industrialized area (Ulsan Bay) in South Korea were identified using effect-directed analysis (EDA) with full-scan screening analysis (FSA) and microalgal bioassays with multiple endpoints. The growth rate and cell viability of three microalgae (Isochrysis galbana, Dunaliella tertiolecta, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) were strongly inhibited following exposure to raw organic extracts of sediments from Site D5 (Woehang River). The polar fraction separated using a silica gel column significantly inhibited growth rate, esterase activity, cell membrane intensity, and chlorophyll a autofluorescence. In comparison, non- and mid-polar fractions induced non-toxic or esterase inhibition. Target toxicants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, styrene oligomers, and alkylphenols, were detected at low concentrations (450, 79, and 98 ng g−1 dw, respectively) in the sediment of D5, indicating the presence of unmonitored toxicants. FSA was performed for the polar fraction using LC-QTOFMS, and 31 candidates of toxicants were selected. Toxicological confirmation was conducted for 7 candidates for which standards are available. Out of these, 2-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, and 4-nitrophenol showed significant microalgal toxicity; however, these compounds did not fully explain the induced toxicity. Overall, combining EDA and FSA with multiple endpoint bioassays demonstrated the benefits of characterizing the microalgal toxicants in the environments.
12. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances in the environment compartments near a mega fluorochemical industry: Implication of specific behaviors and emission estimation
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 445, 5 March 2023, 130473
With the stringent restrictions on long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), ether-PFASs are being widely used as alternatives. We estimated that the mega fluorochemical industrial park (FIP) in Shandong, China, had emitted a maximum of 5040 kg and 1026 kg of hexafluoropropylene oxides (HFPOs), and 7560 kg and 1890 kg of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to water and air during 2021. In the surface water, groundwater, outdoor dust, soil, tree leaf and bark collected in the vicinity of the FIP, PFOA was predominant, followed by HFPOs. The much higher percentage of HFPO dimer acid (HFPO-DA) in groundwater than in surface water verified that this compound was more mobile in porous media. The strong correlations between the main PFASs in outdoor dust and surface soil suggested that the soil PFASs were mainly derived from air deposition, particularly for HFPO trimer acid (HFPO-TA), which has a stronger binding affinity with particles than PFOA. High percentage of the hydroxylated product of 6:2 polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid was observed in groundwater, implying reductive dechlorination might occur in groundwater. Strong correlations between PFASs in outdoor dust and those in tree leaf and bark magnified that tree could serve as a sampler to effectively monitor airborne PFASs. This study provides the first line of information about the discharge, transport, and fate of novel ether-PFASs in the multiple environmental media near a point source.
13. Can renewable energy portfolio standards and carbon tax policies promote carbon emission reduction in China's power industry?
Energy Policy, Volume 174, March 2023, 113461
The carbon emissions of the power industry in China rank the highest among all industries. There is an urgent need to explore the development path of the power industry under carbon peaking and carbon neutrality. Renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and carbon tax policy are effective policy instruments for realizing the low-carbon transition in the power industry. When both RPS and carbon tax policy are implemented, can they drive carbon reduction in the power industry? This paper constructs an electricity market equilibrium model and a system dynamics (SD) model to analyse the impact of multiple policies in electricity markets to address this question. There were several important results. (1) The increase in quota ratio and carbon tax price negatively impacts the generation of thermal power firms, which raises their willingness to invest in renewable energy. (2) The intensity of emissions reduction has a significant influence on the effectiveness of emissions reduction. The greater the emissions reduction intensity, the better the carbon emissions reduction effect, but the power supply declines. (3) Under multiple policies, green power firms choose cost padding to achieve profit maximization goals, which reduces green power generation and leads to market inefficiency.
14. Could energy transition be a game changer for the transfer of polluting industries from developed to developing countries? An application of game theory
Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Available online 20 March 2023
Developed and developing countries have made remarkable efforts to address climate action. However, some developing countries have hung on to their comparative advantage in the polluting production of goods. By applying game theory, specifically a dynamic game with incomplete information, this study examines how the transfer of polluting industries can be discouraged by increasing associated costs through carbon taxes and custom duties on polluting imports. 24 developed countries and 18 developing countries were under analysis. The main findings suggest that energy transition could play a vital role in preventing this transfer. To attract clean FDI and boost energy transition, a stricter regulatory framework through levying carbon taxes and customs duties on polluting imports is recommended as an unstable regulatory framework may deter Foreign Direct Investment but also other desirable types of investment. Policymakers should reformulate how carbon taxes are applied to maintain their deterrent effect of reducing carbon emissions.
15. The CO2 emission reduction path towards carbon neutrality in the Chinese steel industry: A review
Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Volume 99, March 2023, 107017
China has set an ambitious national determined contributions target to peak CO2 emissions by 2030 and aims to be carbon neutral by 2060. One of China's top energy consumers and CO2 contributors, the steel industry accounts for 13% of the country's total consumption and 15% of CO2 emissions. In response to the present global warming trend, there is an urgent need to cut energy consumption and CO2 emissions to promote low-carbon growth. This paper attempts to provide a detailed analysis of the steel industry's CO2 emission reduction path to carbon neutrality. Further efforts in terms of industrial structure, material efficiency, energy efficiency, and low- or zero-carbon technologies are required to achieve a low-carbon transition. Given that decarbonization is a significant priority in the steel industry in many countries, this study focuses on the goals and technological paths of low-carbon emissions projects to optimize existing technology priorities and propose development directions. Deep decarbonization is also projected to be achieved by combining CCUS and hydrogen metallurgy technologies. The steel industry requires collaborative efforts to standardize CO2 emission accounting methodologies and establish a carbon trading system to strengthen carbon emission management.
16. Fate of antibiotic resistance genes and bacteria in a coupled water-processing system with wastewater treatment plants and constructed wetlands in coastal eco-industrial parks
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Volume 252, 1 March 2023, 114606
In coastal eco-industrial zones, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and constructed wetlands (CWs) can alleviate the challenge of water shortage and the negative effect of sewage discharge, while the problems of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have not attracted enough attention. In this research, the Wafergen SmartChip system was adopted to investigate the ARG profiles in a coupled system combined WWTPs and CWs in a coastal industrial park. Potential risks of antibiotic resistance in chemical industrial wastewater were confirmed due to the higher abundance of target ARGs (> 107 copies/mL). General decline with partial enrichment in absolute and relative abundance of ARGs from the WWTPs to CWs revealed the effective removal of ARGs in the coupled system, while the fate of different ARG types varied greatly. Aminoglycoside and sulfonamide ARGs were detected with higher abundance (up to 5.34 ×107 and 3.61 ×107 copies/mL), especially aac(6′)-Ib and sul1. Denitrification, secondary sedimentation, and acid hydrolysis contributed to the removal of aminoglycoside, sulfonamide, β-lactamase, chloramphenicol, and multidrug ARGs. Catalytic ozonation contributed to the removal of tetracycline and MLSB ARGs. Subsurface CWs worked effectively for the removal of sulfonamide, tetracycline, and multidrug ARGs, especially tetX, cphA, tetG, and strB. Close correlations between ARGs and MGEs emphasized the vital roles of anthropogenic pollutants and horizontal gene transfer on the diffusion of ARGs. Actinobacteria, Bacteroidota, and Cyanobacteria were dominant in the CWs, while Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Planctomycetota were prevalent in the WWTPs. Redundancy analysis and variance partitioning analysis indicated that transposase and water quality posed greater influences on the distribution of ARGs. Co-occurrence network revealed that potential multiple antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria decreased in the CWs. The coupled system has a limited effect on the reduction of ARGs and potential ARG hosts, providing a comprehensive insight into the fate of ARGs in conventional water-processing systems.
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