Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 42-2022

  • Cập nhật: Thứ hai, 7/11/2022 | 2:58:04 Chiều

Trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 42-2022 với những nội dung chính như sau:

Về quản lý môi trường

- Nghiên cứu tiếp xúc dân số trong 4 năm: Hàm ý đối với hiệu quả của việc kiểm soát chất thải điện tử và các dấu ấn sinh học về ô nhiễm chất thải điện tử.

- Ô nhiễm không khí qua trung gian khí hậu liên quan đến mức độ nghiêm trọng của COPD.

- Hướng tới tăng trưởng xanh bao trùm ở Châu Phi: Các hiệp lực quan trọng về hiệu quả năng lượng và các ngưỡng quản trị.

 

- Hướng tới các thành phố thông minh bền vững: Đánh giá trưởng thành và công nhận mô hình phát triển ở Trung Quốc.

- Phát triển và xác nhận một công cụ để hội nhập nền kinh tế tuần hoàn trong các công ty công nghiệp: Nghiên cứu điển hình về 30 công ty.

- Các tác nhân gây phát thải carbon toàn cầu 1990 - 2014.

 

- Tham gia vững chắc vào các Mục tiêu Phát triển Bền vững của Liên hợp quốc: Giới thiệu bản đồ các hạn chế từ phân tích nội dung báo cáo của công ty.

- Khả năng chống chịu của đô thị trước thiên tai: Lập bản đồ rủi ro với cách tiếp cận đánh giá dựa trên chỉ số sáng tạo.

- Sáng kiến vành đai và con đường (BRI): Một cơ chế để đạt được mục tiêu phát triển bền vững thứ chín (SDG).

 

Về môi trường đô thị

- 2011 - 2020 xu hướng amoniac đô thị và khu vực ở và xung quanh Barcelona, Đông Bắc Tây Ban Nha.

- Chuyển đổi và phân đoạn đồng vị ổn định của terbutryn chất diệt khuẩn đô thị trong quá trình phân hủy sinh học, phân hủy quang học và thủy phân phi sinh học.

- Phát triển và phân tích các chiến lược lái xe sinh thái để giảm phát thải trên đường trong hệ thống giao thông đô thị - Phương pháp tiếp cận kỹ thuật số kép hỗ trợ VR.

- Một cách tiếp cận kết hợp tĩnh và động để duy trì kết nối mạng sinh thái trong bối cảnh đô thị hóa nhanh chóng.

- Thiết kế và tối ưu hóa hệ thống đa sản xuất để xử lý chất thải rắn đô thị.

- Nghiên cứu về quản lý hợp tác và tối ưu hóa rủi ro sinh thái trong quá trình kết tụ đô thị.

- Sợi nhỏ giải phóng xuống sông đô thị từ khẩu trang trong đại dịch COVID-19.

- Đánh giá sự hợp lực và đánh đổi của các dự án phát triển nhằm ứng phó với biến đổi khí hậu ở một vùng đô thị.

- Những thách thức trong đánh giá lượng khí thải carbon của các cơ sở thu hồi tài nguyên nước thải đô thị hiện đại nhất..

Về môi trường khu công nghiệp

- Màng siêu lọc PAN dạng sợi nano mới được nhúng với các hạt nano ZIF-8 để loại bỏ hiệu quả màu đỏ Congo, Pb (II) và Cu (II) trong xử lý nước thải công nghiệp.

- Xử lý kim loại nặng từ nước thải bằng vi tảo: Những tiến bộ gần đây và xu hướng trong tương lai.

- Công cụ đánh giá và dự đoán các nguồn ồn công nghiệp. Ứng dụng cho một nhà máy xử lý nước thải.

- Hướng tới kiểm soát tổng ô nhiễm hiệu quả về chi phí trong các ngành công nghiệp Trung Quốc.

- Đánh giá tác động môi trường đối với công nghệ thu giữ CO2 sau đốt đối với nhà máy sản xuất xi măng.

- Khử cacbon trong ngành công nghiệp giấy và bột giấy: Một đánh giá quan trọng và có hệ thống về các phát triển công nghệ xã hội và các lựa chọn chính sách

Tác động môi trường của việc sản xuất polypropylene (PP) và triển vọng tái chế nó trong khu vực GCC.

- Một chiến lược hai giai đoạn để sản xuất polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) bằng thiết bị lên men Biohydrogen liên tục và lò phản ứng theo lô trình tự từ nước thải công nghiệp thực phẩm.

- Nhận dạng mối nguy, đánh giá rủi ro và quản lý hệ thống công nghiệp: Quy trình an toàn trong ngành khai thác mỏ.

Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 42-2022
Ảnh minh hoạ. ITN

Dưới đây là tên và phần tóm tắt các nghiên cứu bằng tiếng Anh

QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG

1. Heterogeneous two-sided effects of different types of environmental regulations on carbon productivity in China

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 841, 1 October 2022, 156769

Abstract

In the context of globalization, the importance of enhancing carbon productivity is becoming increasingly evident. The study is a continuation of previous studies on the relationship between environmental regulations and carbon productivity. Based on a dataset of 30 provinces in China from 2006 to 2018, the paper decomposes the two-sided effects of command-and-control and market-based environmental regulations on carbon productivity. First, empirical research shows that the average positive effect of command-and-control environmental regulation on carbon productivity is 0.0158, which is much less than the average of negative effect of 0.0697, highlighting mainly the negative effect on carbon productivity. Conversely, the positive effect of market-based environmental regulation on carbon productivity is 0.0691, much greater than the negative effect of 0.0038, which highlights the obvious positive impact characteristics. Overall, the net effect of command-and-control environmental regulation on carbon productivity is −0.0541, and net effect of market-based environmental regulation on carbon productivity is 0.0653. Second, the negative impact of command-and-control environmental regulations on carbon productivity underwent a "back-to-N” change process in 2006–2018, while the driving effect of market-based environmental regulation on carbon productivity increased continuously during the 2006–2018 period. Third, most of the regions with high negative effects of command-and-control environmental regulation on carbon productivity tend to be resource-intensive and carbon-intensive, while the positive effects of market-based environmental regulation on carbon productivity have no obvious geographical agglomeration characteristics. Fourth, the continuous improvement of regional development conditions is clearly conducive to the continuous reduction of the negative effects of command-and-control environmental regulation on carbon productivity, while the higher positive effects of market-based environmental regulation on carbon productivity at this stage need to meet different regional condition intervals.

2. Four-year population exposure study: Implications for the effectiveness of e-waste control and biomarkers of e-waste pollution

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 842, 10 October 2022, 156595

Abstract

E-waste pollution has emerged as a significant environmental concern. To assess the impact of e-waste control on human pollutant exposure risk and identify appropriate biomarkers to classify e-waste pollution levels, we performed longitudinal population exposure monitoring research in an e-waste recycling area in China after e-waste control. The urinary levels of oxidative stress markers and typical pollutants emitted during e-waste recycling, including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), were continuously monitored in the surrounding population (including 275 children and 485 adults) from 2016 to 2019 using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. The results showed that exposure to PAHs, VOCs and heavy metals was significantly associated with oxidative stress levels in urine. After e-waste control, the exposure levels of most PAHs and VOCs and a few heavy metals in the population significantly decreased. Interestingly, the level of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage) in children significantly decreased by 17.6 %, from 9.45 μg/g CRE in 2017 to 7.79 μg/g CRE in 2019 (p < 0.01). Thus, implementing e-waste control measures effectively reduced the human exposure risk to e-waste pollutants. Urinary tin (Sn), s-phenylmercapturic acid (PMA), 2-&3-hydroxyfluorene (2-&3-OHF), 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OHPhe), and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels decreased significantly and monotonically over time (p < 0.01). The levels of urinary Sn and PMA in combination with 1-OHP, 2-&3-OHF, or 3-OHPhe as biomarkers demonstrated an excellent ability to classify e-waste pollution. These biomarkers will facilitate evaluations of the effectiveness of the governmental pollution regulations and policy measures. Additionally, children were generally exposed to higher levels of heavy metals and VOCs and suffered higher levels of oxidative stress damage than adults, suggesting that children are more vulnerable to e-waste pollution. This work will provide a reference for e-waste management and control.

3. Is the key-treatment-in-key-areas approach in air pollution control policy effective? Evidence from the action plan for air pollution prevention and control in China

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 843, 15 October 2022, 156850

Abstract

The "Action Plan for Air Pollution Prevention and Control from 2013 to 2017” (APAPPC) establishes the key treatment for key areas in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei and its surroundings (BTH), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China. Is the key-treatment-in-key-areas approach effective? Except the targeted pollutants, does there exist the synergistic effects of other air pollutants? Are there differences between the north and the south about the effectiveness of this approach? To answer these new and key questions, this study uses the difference-in-difference (DID) model to evaluate whether it is more effective to implement key treatment policies for two targeted pollutants, PM2.5 and PMcoarse (PM2.5–PM10), and verifies the synergistic emission-reduction effects of the policies on eight other emissions: SO2, NOX, VOC, CO, NH3, BC, OC, and CO2. At the same time, the policy effects are evaluated nationwide, in the north, and in the south using data from 2008 to 2017. The results show the following: (1) The APAPPC's establishment of the key treatment in key areas significantly reduces PM2.5 and PMcoarse by 7.25 % and 10.49 %, respectively, compared with non-key areas nationwide. (2) The key-treatment-in-key-areas policy has synergistic effects on six other emissions: SO2, NOX, CO, BC, OC, and CO2. (3) If viewing the north and the south separately, BTH beats other counterparts in the north by a large margin, while there is no significant difference among provinces and/or areas in the south. This margin is much larger than the one between key areas and other provinces nationwide. Therefore, this paper suggests that key treatment policies in key areas should continue to be implemented, especially for cities that have not dropped, but rather increased, their PM2.5 concentrations. Additionally, air pollution goals should incorporate China's carbon peaking and neutrality goals to reduce air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions.

4. Climate-mediated air pollution associated with COPD severity

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 843, 15 October 2022, 156969

Abstract

Air pollution has been reported to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our study aim was to examine the mediating effects of air pollution on climate-associated health outcomes of COPD patients. A cross-sectional study of 117 COPD patients was conducted in a hospital in Taiwan. We measured the lung function, 6-min walking distance, oxygen desaturation, white blood cell count, and percent emphysema (low attenuation area, LAA) and linked these to 0–1-, 0–3-, and 0–5-year lags of individual-level exposure to relative humidity (RH), temperature, and air pollution. Linear regression models were conducted to examine associations of temperature, RH, and air pollution with severity of health outcomes. A mediation analysis was conducted to examine the mediating effects of air pollution on the associations of RH and temperature with health outcomes. We observed that a 1 % increase in the RH was associated with increases in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), eosinophils, and lymphocytes, and a decrease in the total-lobe LAA. A 1 °C increase in temperature was associated with decreases in oxygen desaturation, and right-, left-, and upper-lobe LAA values. Also, a 1 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a decrease in the FEV1 and an increase in oxygen desaturation. A 1 μg/m3 increases in PM10 and PM2.5 was associated with increases in the total-, right-, left, upper-, and lower-lobe (PM2.5 only) LAA. A one part per billion increase in NO2 was associated with a decrease in the FEV1 and an increase in the upper-lobe LAA. Next, we found that NO2 fully mediated the association between RH and FEV1. We found PM2.5 fully mediated associations of temperature with oxygen saturation and total-, right-, left-, and upper-lobe LAA. In conclusion, climate-mediated air pollution increased the risk of decreasing FEV1 and oxygen saturation and increasing emphysema severity among COPD patients. Climate change-related air pollution is an important public health issue, especially with regards to respiratory disease.

5. Is the key-treatment-in-key-areas approach in air pollution control policy effective? Evidence from the action plan for air pollution prevention and control in China

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 843, 15 October 2022, 156850

Abstract

The "Action Plan for Air Pollution Prevention and Control from 2013 to 2017” (APAPPC) establishes the key treatment for key areas in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei and its surroundings (BTH), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China. Is the key-treatment-in-key-areas approach effective? Except the targeted pollutants, does there exist the synergistic effects of other air pollutants? Are there differences between the north and the south about the effectiveness of this approach? To answer these new and key questions, this study uses the difference-in-difference (DID) model to evaluate whether it is more effective to implement key treatment policies for two targeted pollutants, PM2.5 and PMcoarse (PM2.5–PM10), and verifies the synergistic emission-reduction effects of the policies on eight other emissions: SO2, NOX, VOC, CO, NH3, BC, OC, and CO2. At the same time, the policy effects are evaluated nationwide, in the north, and in the south using data from 2008 to 2017. The results show the following: (1) The APAPPC's establishment of the key treatment in key areas significantly reduces PM2.5 and PMcoarse by 7.25 % and 10.49 %, respectively, compared with non-key areas nationwide. (2) The key-treatment-in-key-areas policy has synergistic effects on six other emissions: SO2, NOX, CO, BC, OC, and CO2. (3) If viewing the north and the south separately, BTH beats other counterparts in the north by a large margin, while there is no significant difference among provinces and/or areas in the south. This margin is much larger than the one between key areas and other provinces nationwide. Therefore, this paper suggests that key treatment policies in key areas should continue to be implemented, especially for cities that have not dropped, but rather increased, their PM2.5 concentrations. Additionally, air pollution goals should incorporate China's carbon peaking and neutrality goals to reduce air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions.

6. Investigating carbon footprint and carbon reduction potential using a cradle-to-cradle LCA approach on lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles in China

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 369, 1 October 2022, 133342

Abstract

Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the core components of electric vehicles (EVs), and its ecological impacts are significant for the sustainable development of EVs. In this study, the carbon footprint of LIBs produced in China is investigated using a cradle-to-cradle life-cycle assessment approach. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) The carbon emission from battery production is 91.21 kg CO2-eq/kWh, in which the cathode production and battery assembly process are the main sources of carbon emissions; (2) The carbon emission during the battery use phase under China's electricity mix which is dominated by thermal power in 2020 is 154.1 kg CO2-eq/kWh; (3) Hydrometallurgy is the battery recycling method with the lowest carbon emission, and direct physical recycling method has attractive carbon reduction potential. (4) The carbon emission of battery remanufacturing through recycled materials is 51.8% lower than that of battery production with raw materials. Under the future electricity mix, the carbon emissions of battery production in 2050 and 2060 will be reduced by 75% and 84.9%, respectively. The short-term carbon reduction measure is battery recycling, and the long-term carbon reduction measure is the greening of electricity.

7. Market-oriented environmental regulations, employment adjustment and transfer path: Quasi-experimental evidence from China's carbon emissions trading pilot

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 369, 1 October 2022, 133292

Abstract

Following China's pilot program of the released Carbon Emission Trading (CET) in 2011, affected companies were forced to alter their production and operational choices, which had an impact on their labor demand and employment structure. This study examines the employment adjustment effect and employment transfer effect of CET in China using propensity score matching (PSM) and difference-in-differences (DID) method, based on the panel data of Chinese listed companies (2009–2019). We found that China's CET has expanded the scale of employment and changed the employment structure in the pilot regions. The employment adjustment effect of CET mainly comes from the First-tier pilot regions, and it mostly affects the highly educated work force. CET increased the proportion of highly-educated labor through the increase of R&D innovation and investment, while reduced the proportion of production worker employed due to the increase of production cost, it promotes the transfer of labor from underdeveloped regions to First-tier pilot regions.

8. Towards inclusive green growth in Africa: Critical energy efficiency synergies and governance thresholds

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 369, 1 October 2022, 132917

Abstract

This study contributes to the scholarly literature on the drive towards sustainable development in light of the UN's Agenda 2030 and African Union's Agenda 2063 by examining pathways through which energy efficiency (EE) promotes inclusive green growth (IGG) in Africa. Our contribution is novel from both the conceptual and empirical perspectives. With regard to the former, we develop a framework on how EE and governance feed into IGG, and on the latter, our contribution is based on country-level data for 23 African countries for the period 2000–2020. First, evidence from the generalised method of moments (GMM) estimator shows that EE is not unconditionally effective for spurring IGG. Second, we find that governance is both directly, and indirectly effective for repackaging EE to foster IGG. In particular, the evidence suggests that governance mechanisms for controlling corruption while ensuring regulatory quality and government effectiveness are keys for forming relevant synergies with EE to foster IGG. Third, regarding the socioeconomic sustainability (SES) and environmental sustainability (EVS) dichotomy of IGG, we find that compared to the former, the EE-governance pathway is more effective for driving the latter. We make some policy recommendations in the end.

9. Towards sustainable smart cities: Maturity assessment and development pattern recognition in China

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 370, 10 October 2022, 133248

Abstract

Rapid population growth and urban sprawl create pressure on environmental resources along with a growing demand for physical resources in cities. The concept of a smart sustainable city proposes a framework to ensure citizens a better life and protect the environment to maintain sustainability through information and communication technologies. This paper constructed a sustainable smart city development indicator system using the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) maturity model and assessed the maturity level of 35 cities in China. Spectral clustering was adopted to recognize development patterns on three dimensions and 53 indicators. The results indicated four development patterns. Completing developing elements converged in comprehensive-development cities. Environmental-friendly cities enhanced environmental quality under government guidance supported by information and communications technology. Welfare cities showed good social welfare via the government's highly focused strategy but lacked economic support. Innovation, trade, capital investment, mental poverty, and poor living conditions characterized undeveloped cities. Practical implications are recommended for each type according to development differences to build a better smart sustainable city.

10. Development and validation of a tool for the integration of the circular economy in industrial companies: Case study of 30 companies

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 370, 10 October 2022, 133318

Abstract

Circular Economy (CE) implementation is considered an instrumental strategy to help reaching the world's resource, energy, and climate mitigation targets, including the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030. However, major barriers must be overcome to facilitate CE implementation in industry such as cultural, market, regulatory and technological considerantions (Kirchherr et al., 2018). Improving management systems within industrial companies is crucial when implementing effective CE solutions in compliance with existing industrial standards such as quality and environmental management systems. However, it is not yet common practice yet due to the lack of standardized, suitable, and easy-to-use supporting analytical tools. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting Industrial Circular Economy Questionnaire (ICEQ), a self-diagnosis questionnaire built upon the revision of industrial harmonized standards and, academic literature on business-level CE assessment tools. ICEQ, compiling a set of 165 questions for company self-CE assessment, was applied to 30 industrial companies belonging to 17 economic sectors (automotive, machining and metalworking transformation, waste management, machine tool, etc.) in the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC) in Spain. The automotive sector stands out with 70% of circularity while Machining and metalworking transformation only has 34%, showing that the automotive sector is more conscious of CE since they must comply with End-of-Life Vehicles (EoLV) legislation.

11. Drivers of global carbon emissions 1990 - 2014

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 371, 15 October 2022, 133371

Abstract

The identification of the drivers of carbon emissions is fundamental for carbon reductions at the national level. In this study, structural decomposition analysis (SDA) is applied to 112 countries in the world from 1990 to 2014. Carbon dioxide emissions are decomposed into six driving factors: population, fuel mix, energy intensity, production structure, consumption patterns, and consumption volume. Then, the contributions of five final consumers and the six driving factors to the total carbon dioxide emissions are quantified. Based on the CO2 emissions intensity and the CO2 emissions growth rates, 112 countries are classified into 4 groups and the effects of all driving factors vary significantly among groups. Energy intensity is the most significant factor that negatively influences the total carbon emission in all groups. Fuel mix and production structure show potential positive effects on reducing carbon emissions in Group 2 (e.g. the USA, Greece, Italy) and Group 3 (e.g. Germany, the UK, Sweden), but they increase the carbon emissions in Group 1 (e.g. China) and Group 4 (e.g. Indonesia, Thailand, Pakistan). Consumption volume results in a dramatic increase in the carbon emissions in all groups, which implies that the increasing purchasing power of households and government is the most notable obstacle to carbon dioxide mitigation. Population growth accelerates the carbon emissions in developing countries in Group 4. Thus, the race between household consumption volume growth and energy intensity reduction is vital for carbon emission mitigation in Group 4.

12. Firm engagement in UN Sustainable Development Goals: Introduction of a constraints map from a corporate reports content analysis

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 371, 15 October 2022, 133446

Abstract

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have directed attention towards sustainable development and contributes to coordinating firm activity in this realm. Responsible research and innovation (RRI) is necessary to achieve goals such as eliminating poverty, eradicating hunger, and reducing inequality, as well as for reducing the environmental impact. This study analyzes the extent to which these goals are being implemented by large, innovative firms featured in Fortune's Change the World list. A content analysis of the corporate reports made available by 40 firms was conducted to act as the basis of an analysis of the sustainable measures currently being undertaken. We have conceptualized firm engagement as a constraint map for RRI where frugal and other constraint-based innovation may be suitable for firms acting in areas with low engagement. Conversely, when many firms address the same goal, large firms may better leverage their efforts if acting in innovation ecosystems. The findings indicate that companies are prioritizing the reduction of greenhouse gases, implementation of data security, promotion of diversity at the workplace, and the health and safety of employees. Overall, there is a tendency towards corporate measures that not only contribute towards the SDGs but also create clear financial value and target regulatory compliance. Sustainability reporting must thus be developed to avoid the SDGs becoming a tool for green washing and similar behaviors.

13. Urban resilience against natural disasters: Mapping the risk with an innovative indicators-based assessment approach

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 371, 15 October 2022, 133496

Abstract

The increase in the frequency and intensity through which natural disasters have hit cities in the last twenty years has created the need to prefigure a model of sustainable urban development not only consistent with the goals promoted by the Agenda 2030, but also efficient in the regulation of the main cause of the natural disasters: consumption of natural soil. Therefore, the aim of the research is to define an indicators-based methodology for determining a synthetic natural risk index, which represents the degree of territorial exposure to multiple natural disasters in the different sub-urban areas within a vulnerable city. The proposed methodology is structured into eight sequential and ordered phases that comply a system of 23 indicators for the three main components of natural risk (hazard, exposure and vulnerability). Their importance is accounted in the final aggregation of the index through the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process multi-criteria evaluation technique. The validated results achieved by the application of the proposed methodology to the city of Rome (Italy), represented in a georeferenced map of the risk level of natural disasters, allow to immediately identify the most critical sub-urban areas on the west coast of the "Tevere” river. The proposed risk index may be useful for public and private subjects involved in the predisposition of sustainable urban plans and projects, aimed at improving the level of urban resilience connected to natural disasters aggravated by land consumption. In this way the targets of Goals n.13 "Reducing climate change” and n.15 "Life on Earth” of the Agenda 2030 can be applied at the sub-urban scale.

14. The belt and road initiative (BRI): A mechanism to achieve the ninth sustainable development goal (SDG)

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 372, 20 October 2022, 133590

Abstract

Congruent with economic stability and environmental sustainability, the ninth Sustainable Development Goal (SDG - Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure) plays a crucial role in undergirding the industrial revolution. Conversely, it is inevitably complex for underdeveloped and emerging economies to meet the ninth SDG's 2030 agenda due to a lack of sufficient financial resources and the slow adoption of technology. With China expanding its Belt and Road Initiatives (BRIs) globally, mainly few findings espouse the significant link between BRI and the ninth SDG, and its probable impact remains understudied. Hence, a considerable gap yet exists in contemporary understanding of the impact of BRI on sustainability. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study on six different countries (Algeria, Ghana, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria and Palestine) to investigate the role of the BRI in achieving the ninth SDG. Face-to-face interviews and focus group discussions were applied. This qualitative data collection technique involved 26 participants representing industry experts and academic researchers. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. The result showed a significant progressive impact of BRI on the ninth SDG, and that the development of sustainable infrastructure is a key antecedent of the BRI policy enforcement in the six countries explored. The result also showed positive and negative spillover effects of BRI projects in the six countries. Government and Policymakers should design and enforce pro-growth and sustainable strategies to facilitate continuous implementation of policies that would align the execution of the BRI projects to bolster achievement of the ninth SDG.

15. Evaluating environmental outcome and process-adaptivity of regional collaboration: An empirical study from China

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 319, 1 October 2022, 115773

Abstract

Since the 2000s, China has enforced regional collaboration as a way of resolving cross-diffused air pollution and jurisdictional limitations. It is, however, a hotly debated issue as to whether authority-driven regional collaboration can be sustained and effective, and no consensus has been achieved by the theoretical discussion. Despite extensive empirical research on the topic, most studies judged the sustainability of collaborations by analyzing the environmental outcomes within a short period after their initiation. To provide more comprehensive empirical evidence to the open question, this paper introduces the criterion of adaptivity to determine whether collaboration is sustainable. Taking the changing collaboration in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and its surroundings as a quasi-natural experiment, Difference-in-Difference model and Triple Difference Model are used to verify the adaptivity from two aspects. Results show that authority-driven collaboration adjustment yields better environmental outcomes. Additionally, the better environmental outcome is observed in original collaborators, implying that local governments can learn by doing and form interdependence through repeated collaborative actions. The adaptive collaboration, however, has two limitations. First, the collaboration mechanism is formed primarily based on performance evaluation and target assessment instruments, without showing adaptivity in reducing soft control indicators of air pollution. Second, the different regulation pressure between non-collaborating and collaboration cities results in undesirable spillover effects within a range of 40–100 km. This study not only contributes to empirical and theoretical studies on regional collaboration but also provides support to the improvement of the collaboration system in practice.

16. Do socio-economic factors matter? A comprehensive evaluation of tourism eco-efficiency determinants in China based on the Geographical Detector Model

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 320, 15 October 2022, 115812

Abstract

Constructed on the total-factor analysis framework, this paper develops a comprehensive evaluation system and adopts the Super-SBM model to both analyze and enunciate the characteristics of tourism eco-efficiency in China during 2000–2017. This paper also identifies the determinants associated with spatial differentiation of tourism eco-efficiency by employing a novel geographical technique, namely the Geographical Detector Model. The results indicate that the tourism eco-efficiency exhibits great potential for growth. Besides, pure technical efficiency drives the optimized development of eco-efficiency. Also, there is significant spatial variations in eco-efficiency across different provinces and regions in China. Urbanization contributes to tourism eco-efficiency remarkably, followed by openness, technical level, economic scale, industrial structure, capital effect, environmental regulation, and tourism growth. The relational interrelations of tourism eco-efficiency determinants are the bi-enhancement and the nonlinear-enhancement interactions. The implications of research findings are discussed and may be applied to a multitude of corporate environmental-economic management scenarios.

17. A scientometric analysis of indoor air pollution research during 1990 - 2019

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 320, 15 October 2022, 115736

Abstract

Indoor air pollution (IAP) is one of the leading risk factors for various adverse health outcomes including premature deaths globally. Even though research related to IAP has been carried out, bibliometric studies with particular emphasis on this topic have been lacking. Here, we investigated IAP research from 1990 to 2019 retrieved from the Web of Science database through a comprehensive and systematic scientometric analysis using the CiteSpace 5.7.R2, a powerful tool for visualizing structural, temporal patterns and trends of a scientific field. There was an exponential increase in publications, however, with a stark difference between developed and developing countries. The journals publishing IAP related research had multiple disciplines; ‘Indoor Air’ journal that focuses solely on IAP issues ranked fifth among top-cited journals. The terms like ‘global burden’, ‘comparative risk assessment,’ ‘household air pollution (HAP)', ‘ventilation’, ‘respiratory health’, ‘emission factor’, ‘impact,’ ‘energy’, ‘household’, ‘India’ were the current topical subject where author Kirk R. Smith was identified with a significant contribution. Research related to rural, fossil-fuel toxicity, IAP, and exposure-assessment had the highest citation burst signifying the particular attention of scientific communities to these subjects. Overall, this study examined the evolution of IAP research, identified the gaps and provided future research directions.

MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ

1. Health risk assessment of PM2.5 heavy metals in county units of northern China based on Monte Carlo simulation and APCS-MLR

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 843, 15 October 2022, 156777

Abstract

The key areas of China's urbanization process have gradually shifted from urban areas to county-level units. Correspondingly, air pollution in county towns may be heavier than in urban areas, which has led to a lack of understanding of the pollution situation in such areas. In view of this, 236 PM2.5 filter samples were collected in Pingyao, north of the Fen-Wei Plain, one of the most polluted areas in China. Monte Carlo simulation was used to solve the serious uncertainties of traditional HRA, and the coupling technology of absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) and health risk assessment (HRA) is used to quantitatively analyze the health risks of pollution sources. The results showed that PM2.5 concentration was highest in autumn, 3.73 times the 24 h guideline recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Children were more susceptible to heavy metals in the county-level unit, with high hazard quotient (HQ) values of Pb being the dominant factor leading to an increased non-carcinogenic risk. A significant carcinogenic risk was observed for all groups in autumn in Pingyao, with exposure to Ni in the outdoor environment being the main cause. Vehicle emissions and coal combustion were identified as two major sources of health threats. In short, China's county-level population, about one-tenth of the world's population, faces far more health risks than expected.

2. 2011–2020 trends of urban and regional ammonia in and around Barcelona, NE Spain

Chemosphere, Volume 304, October 2022, 135347

Abstract

It is well established that in environments where NH3 abundance is limiting in secondary PM2.5 generation, a reduction of NH3 emissions can result in an important contribution to air quality control. However, as deduced from open data published by the European Environmental Agency, the availability of measurements of NH3 concentrations is very scarce, with very few countries in Europe reporting data consistently for extensive periods, this being especially true for urban background sites. In this framework, simultaneous multi-site measurements were carried out in NE (Northeast) Spain from 2011 to 2020, using diffusion tubes. The highest NH3 concentrations were recorded at the traffic site (5.3 μgm−3 on average), followed by those measured at the urban background site (2.1 μgm−3). Mean concentrations at the mountain site were 1.6 μgm−3, while the lowest concentrations were recorded at the regional site (0.9 μgm−3). This comparison highlights traffic emissions as an important source of NH3. A statistically significant time trend of this pollutant was observed at the urban background site, increasing by 9.4% per year. A season-separated analysis also revealed a significant increasing trend at the mountain site during summer periods, probably related with increasing emissions from agricultural/livestock activities. These increases in NH3 concentrations were hypothesized to be responsible for the lack of a decreasing trend of NO3− concentrations at the monitoring sites, in spite of a markedly reduction of NO2 during the period, especially at the urban background. Thus, this would in turn affect the effectiveness of current action plans to abate fine aerosols, largely made up of secondary compounds. Actions to reduce NH3 concentrations at urban backgrounds are challenging though, as predicting NH3 is subjected to a high uncertainty and complexity due to its dependence on a variety of factors. This complexity was clearly indicated by the application of a decision tree algorithm to find the parameters better predicting NH3 at the urban background under study. O3, NO, NO2, CO, SO2 and OM + EC concentrations, together with meteorological indicators, were used as independent variables, obtaining no combination of parameters evidently able to predict significant differences in NH3 concentrations, with a coefficient of determination between real and predicted measurements lower than 0.50. This emphasizes the need for highly temporally and spatially resolved NH3 measurements for an accurate design of abatement actions.

3. Transformation and stable isotope fractionation of the urban biocide terbutryn during biodegradation, photodegradation and abiotic hydrolysis

Chemosphere, Volume 305, October 2022, 135329

Abstract

Terbutryn is a widely used biocide in construction materials like paint and render to prevent the growth of microorganisms, algae and fungi. Terbutryn is released from the facades into the environment during rainfall, contaminating surface waters, soil and groundwater. Knowledge of terbutryn dissipation from the facades to aquatic ecosystems is scarce. Here, we examined in laboratory microcosms degradation half-lives, formation of transformation products and carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation during terbutryn direct (UV light with λ = 254 nm and simulated sunlight) and indirect (simulated sunlight with nitrate) photodegradation, abiotic hydrolysis (pH = 1, 7 and 13), and aerobic biodegradation (stormwater pond sediment, soil and activated sludge). Biodegradation half-lives of terbutryn were high (>80 d). Photodegradation under simulated sunlight and hydrolysis at extreme pH values indicated slow degradability and accumulation in the environment. Photodegradation resulted in a variety of transformation products, whereas abiotic hydrolysis lead solely to terbutryn-2-hydroxy in acidic and basic conditions. Biodegradation indicates degradation to terbutryn-2-hydroxy through terbutryn-sulfoxide. Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of terbutryn holds potential to differentiate degradation pathways. Carbon isotope fractionation values (εC) ranged from −3.4 ± 0.3‰ (hydrolysis pH 1) to +0.8 ± 0.1‰ (photodegradation under UV light), while nitrogen isotope fractionation values ranged from −1.0 ± 0.4‰ (simulated sunlight photodegradation with nitrate) to +3.4 ± 0.2‰ (hydrolysis at pH 1). In contrast, isotope fractionation during biodegradation was insignificant. ΛN/C values ranged from −1.0 ± 0.1 (hydrolysis at pH 1) to 2.8 ± 0.3 (photodegradation under UV light), allowing to differentiate degradation pathways. Combining the formation of transformation products and stable isotope fractionation enabled identifying distinct degradation pathways. Altogether, this study highlights the potential of CSIA to follow terbutryn degradation in situ and differentiate prevailing degradation pathways, which may help to monitor urban biocide remediation and mitigation strategies.

4. Developing and analyzing eco-driving strategies for on-road emission reduction in urban transport systems - A VR-enabled digital-twin approach

Chemosphere, Volume 305, October 2022, 135372

Abstract

A vast number of pollutants are generated from on-road commuting vehicles, and there is an increasing need to explore vehicle emission monitoring and mitigation strategies. Traditionally, vehicle emissions can be monitored and measured directly from on-vehicle devices such as a sensor at the tailpipe, or based on expensive data collection tools such as roadside units; while another mainstream research estimates vehicle emissions by relying on the connection to the vehicle motions, which can approximately calculate vehicle emissions under certain traffic conditions. This paper proposes a virtual reality (VR) enabled digital twin platform for on-road emission monitoring, and it develops and evaluates eco-driving strategies within a specific area. The proposed approach, integrating a VR-based digital environment, a micro-simulation model for background traffic, and a Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator for emission estimation, offers an alternative to collect and examine vehicle emissions such as NOx under various traffic conditions. A case study on a central business area in Melbourne is conducted and eco-driving strategies are tested in two scenarios. The first scenario concerns the impact of hybrid electric vehicles and connected autonomous vehicles, which points to the long-term benefit of having controllable and cleaner modes of transportation as a strategy. Results showed that manipulating the penetration rate of emission-friendly engines or motions could reduce vehicle emissions effectively. The second scenario concerns the real-time eco-routing based on emission-optimum, which points to the short-term benefit of emission control strategies. Human-in-the-loop experiments were conducted to test drivers’ responses toward routing options. Results showed that over 90% of participants would follow the eco-routing recommendations completely. The presented study offers an alternative to data-generating, analyzing, and managing approaches for on-road emissions in urban transportation systems.

5. A static and dynamic coupling approach for maintaining ecological networks connectivity in rapid urbanization contexts

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 369, 1 October 2022, 133375

Abstract

Ongoing, rapid urbanization accompanied by habitat fragmentation and loss poses great threats to biodiversity and the ecosystem. Maintaining ecological networks (ENs) connectivity provides a powerful landscape strategy to confront these ecological consequences. However, for rapid urbanization contexts, the connectivity of ENs cannot be well maintained by the current protection system under the impacts of continuous land expansion. Although the stepping-stones protection offers feasible connectivity-based schemes, the degree of their availability in dynamic land expansion scenarios is unclear. In this study, we developed a static and dynamic coupling approach that emphasized a comprehensive ENs protection system should be incorporated into future land expansion scenarios. The system included landscape defects identification which can be built as stepping-stones outside the traditional ENs establishment framework for ENs connectivity restoration. Taking Southern Jiangsu as the application case, our results showed that there were 127 existing landscape defects covering a total area of 285.00 km2, in the fragmented regional ENs, constituting the group of stepping-stones that can efficiently improve the ENs connectivity. Meanwhile, we confirmed that these stepping-stones were vulnerable although they were included in the protection system, with 70% of the total would be degraded and 13% lost due to the encroachments caused by future land expansion. Therefore, we proposed an alternative scenario that designated stepping-stones as restricted land expansion areas integrated into the comprehensive ENs protection system to maintain their persistent roles in connectivity. This study highlighted the weakness of traditional ENs establishment for rapid urbanization contexts and provided practical contributions to improving the effect of regional ecological protection and restoration.

6. Design and optimization of poly-generation system for municipal solid waste disposal

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 370, 10 October 2022, 133611

Abstract

Existing disposal methods of MSW are costly and have led to other environmental pollution. A poly-generation system (PGS) integrating the pyrolysis, incineration and anaerobic digestion processes is proposed to lower the treatment cost of MSW by the internal supplies of auxiliary fuel oil, electricity, steam, and hydrogen. A mixed integer nonlinear programming is developed to obtain the optimal feed ratio and achieve the balance between supply and demand of the PGS by minimizing the total annual cost. Electricity balance scenario and gasoline balance scenario are proposed to illustrate the PGS model. The total annual cost of the electricity balance scenario is 95,122.23 CNY/h and the one of the gasoline balance scenario is 15,699.66 CNY/h. Electricity balance scenario shows a larger economic advantage with about 79,710.97 CNY/h due to the relatively lower fuel yield of pyrolysis. Operating cost of the PGS can be reduced by the comparison of subsidy proportion between PGS and triditional incineration treatment. Considering the internal supplies of auxiliary fuel and electricity, PGS is capable to reduce the MSW treatment cost and improve the MSW resource utilization.

7. A network-based framework for characterizing urban carbon metabolism associated with land use changes: A case of Beijing city, China

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 371, 15 October 2022, 133695

Abstract

Land use and cover changes associated with urbanization is an important source of the global carbon emissions. Understanding of the driving mechanism of the LUCC-related carbon emissions is of great significance to enhance the benefit of reducing anthropogenic emissions, estimate land use-carbon flow feedbacks, and formulate climate policies. In the present study, we established a network-based framework integrated with ecological network analysis (ENA) and patch-generating land use simulation (PLUS) models to quantify the LUCC impacts on carbon flow variabilities during 1990–2018, using Beijing, China as a target case. Results showed that the total carbon emissions increased from 1990 (10.69 Mt C yr−1) to 2010 (20.61 Mt C yr−1), followed with steady decease to 2018 (18.63 Mt C yr−1), which predominated over total carbon sequestrations with a factor of 28.5 times in 1990 to 48.5 times in 2018. Both the net carbon source and carbon sink associated with land use changes showed decreasing trends over time, with decreasing rates at 5.5% and 4.6%, respectively. Most of this decrease in net carbon source was attributed to emission intensity decline of transportation and industrial land. The decrease of net carbon sink was attributed to slower urban land shrinkage rate and recover of green space. The simulated decarbonization paths suggests there is still a great potential for carbon emission reduction in the city. Carbon emission reduction of different scenario ranged from 19% to 44%, among which 96.1%–97.5% was contributed by decline of emission intensities and 2.4%–3.9% was resulted from recovery of carbon sink land. Moreover, the additional land use adjustment caused extra 6.1%–9.4% carbon emission reduction and 2.2%–5.2% carbon sequestration growth comparing the situation in 2018, which mainly attributed to carbon emission intensities decline and reforest. Overall, our results provide insights into the key carbon flow paths that are necessary for making land use policy towards a more sustainable urban metabolism.

8. Research on collaborative management and optimization of ecological risks in urban agglomeration

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 372, 20 October 2022, 133735

Abstract

Collaborative governance is increasingly advocated to address the ecological risk management issues that occur during urban agglomeration developing. However, how to form strong and effective collaboration is still a great challenge among multiple cities in urban agglomeration. By analysing the multiple ecological risk transmission pathways of the case of Pearl River Delta Urban Agglomeration (PRD) in China, this paper aims at deconstructing the complex structure and connection types in urban agglomeration, as well as exploring the inherent mechanism of ecological risk governance to achieve collaboration. Thus, a new Bayesian network model of ecological risk transmission is developed to visualize the key connection notes of risk transmission process. Testing the impacts of (1) number of collaborative cities, (2) spatial distance factor and (3) risk transmission links, we can find the optimal cooperative risk management strategy by reducing the probability of occurrence of key nodes and intervening on the critical path of the risk transmission process. The results show that (1) The current collaborative governance plan in the PRD is mainly formulated by large cities driving small surrounding cities, which is not an optimal strategy. (2) The management effect of ecological risks in urban agglomerations is not necessarily positively correlated with the number of collaborative cities. There are multiple combinations methods under a certain number of collaborative cities and the effects of ecological risk collaborative governance are different. (3) Collaboration governance of urban agglomeration should be based on the overall planning of urban development, and comprehensively consider collaboration number, spatial distance and association between cities.

9. Trends and inequalities in distance to and use of nearest natural space in the context of the 20-min neighbourhood: A 4-wave national repeat cross-sectional study, 2013 to 2019

Environmental Research, Volume 213, October 2022, 113610

Abstract

The 20-min neighbourhood is a policy priority for governments worldwide; a key feature of this policy is providing access to natural space (NS) within 800 m of home. The study aims were to (1) examine the association between distance to nearest NS and frequent use over time and (2) examine whether frequent use and changes in use were patterned by income and housing tenure over time. Bi-annual Scottish Household Survey data were obtained for 2013 to 2019 (n:42128 aged 16+). Adults were asked the walking distance to their nearest NS, the frequency of visits to this space and their housing tenure, as well as age, sex and income. We examined the association between distance from home of nearest NS, housing tenure, and the likelihood of frequent NS use (visited once a week or more). Two-way interaction terms were further applied to explore variation in the association between tenure and frequent NS use over time. We found that 87% of respondents lived within 10 min walk of a NS, meeting the policy specification for a 20-min neighbourhood. Greater proximity to NS was associated with increased use; individuals living a 6–10 min walk and over 10 min walk were respectively 53% and 78% less likely to report frequent NS use than those living within a 5 min walk. Housing tenure was an important predictor of frequent NS use; private renters and homeowners were more likely to report frequent NS use than social renters. Our findings provide evidence that proximity to NS is a strong predictor of frequent use. Our study provides important evidence that time-based access measures alone do not consider deep-rooted socioeconomic variation in use of NS. Policy makers should ensure a nuanced lens is applied to operationalising and monitoring the 20-min neighbourhood to safeguard against exacerbating existing inequalities.

10. Microfiber releasing into urban rivers from face masks during COVID-19

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 319, 1 October 2022, 115741

Abstract

Face masks play a crucial protective role in preventing the spread of coronavirus disease during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the improper disposal of used face masks also causes an emerging environmental problem, such as microplastic contamination. Here, the aim was to evaluate the improper disposal of used face masks and, subsequently, the potential contribution to microplastic contamination in urban rivers. First, we investigated the occurrence of discarded face masks in Qing River through continuously one-month collection on-site, and the disposable masks with a density of (8.28 ± 4.21) × 10−5 items/m2 with varying degrees of wear and tear were found. Next, the microfibers shedding from two popular types of new disposable masks were tested. The results showed that 50.33 ± 18.50 items/mask of microfibers, ranging from 301 μm to 467 μm in size, were released from the disposal face mask after immersion in ultrapure water for 24-h. It was significantly higher than the KN95 respirator of 31.33 ± 0.57 items/mask, ranging from 273 μm to 441 μm. Besides C and O elements only found in new face masks, some potentially toxic elements were also detected on the surface of discarded face masks, indicating that various environmental contaminations are easy to adsorb on the surface of discarded face masks. The results implied that these discarded face masks in an aquatic environment are emerging sources of microfibers and could act as transport vectors for contaminants, which would aggravate the present microplastic contamination. In conclusion, these findings were expected to raise public awareness of the proper disposal of used face masks to prevent microplastic contamination and the spread of COVID-19 in the environment.

11. Assessing the synergies and trade-offs of development projects in response to climate change in an urban region

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 319, 1 October 2022, 115731

Abstract

A synthesis of the complex relationships, including synergies and trade-offs, between urban development projects and climate change mitigation and adaptation objectives can ensure that all these relationships are taken into consideration. We used a systems approach and applied an impact matrix and chain effect analysis methods to projects in the highly urbanized Taipei metropolitan region to identify the influences and effects between urban development projects and climate change objectives. Three types of urban plans and projects were analyzed: flood control, transportation, and urban planning. The magnitudes of the influences and effects between these projects and plans were derived through interviews with experts familiar with Taipei's urban development. This pilot study found no synergy in the response to climate change mitigation and adaptation for the urban development projects analyzed. The current standalone policies and plans related to urbanization in Taipei have resulted in trade-offs for flood control and public transit projects because they contribute positively toward one climate objective but negatively impact another. A high-level policymaking mechanism that ensures coordination and collaboration between different sectors is needed to supervise sectoral policies. Prior to the approval and implementation of a plan, policymakers should request the assessment of synergies and trade-offs between plans and projects to ensure a synergistic effect to climate change issues. This study confirms that the strategy from individual sector in a metropolitan region will result in trade-off between climate change issues is a global problem. This paper also strengthens the concept that the assessment of synergy/trade-offs between policy and plans should be conducted using systemic approach.

12. Assessing the recreational value of small-scale nature-based solutions when planning urban flood adaptation

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 320, 15 October 2022, 115724

Abstract

Nature-based solutions may actively reduce hydro-meteorological risks in urban areas as a part of climate change adaptation. However, the main reason for the increasing uptake of this type of solution is their many benefits for the local inhabitants, including recreational value. Previous studies on recreational value focus on studies of existing nature sites that are often much larger than what is considered as new NBS for flood adaptation studies in urban areas. We thus prioritized studies with smaller areas and nature types suitable for urban flood adaptation and divided them into four common nature types for urban flood adaptation: sustainable urban drainage systems, city parks, nature areas and rivers. We identified 23 primary valuation studies, including both stated and revealed preference studies, and derived two value transfer functions based on meta-regression analysis on existing areas. We investigated trends between values and variables and found that for the purpose of planning of new NBS the size of NBS and population density were determining factors of recreational value. For existing NBS the maximum travelling distance may be included as well. We find that existing state-of-the-art studies overestimate the recreational with more than a factor of 4 for NBS sizes below 5 ha. Our results are valid in a European context for nature-based solutions below 250 ha and can be applied across different NBS types and sizes.

13. Challenges in carbon footprint evaluations of state-of-the-art municipal wastewater resource recovery facilities

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 320, 15 October 2022, 115715

Abstract

Wastewater treatment is an important source of direct and indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which some wastewater operators report and account for CO2-eq impacts through carbon footprint evaluations. We investigated the challenges with GHG emissions’ accounting of three state-of-the-art energy-efficient wastewater resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) and reviewed their CO2 accounting reports. Our study aimed to highlight the major contributors and factors to estimate emissions, including direct N2O and CH4 emissions and propose recommendations for public reporting of CO2 accounting of WRRFs. We categorised emissions as direct (scope 1), background (scope 2), downstream and avoided emissions (scope 3A and 3B) and evaluated how a change in emission factor may affect how close the WRRFs are to reaching CO2 neutrality. The results show that electricity consumption and direct emissions constitute between 20 and 70% of actual CO2-eq emissions and therefore need careful consideration.

All three plants have increasingly offset scope 2 emissions over 2014–2019, resulting in a total reduction of approximately 3211 tons CO2-eq, corresponding to 72% of their needed cuts by 2030 set by the Danish government.

No standard factors are used across the plants to estimate emissions. We propose some general recommendations that wastewater operators can apply to correctly report and account for CO2-eq emissions. We also recommend that operators move their long-term focus from CO2 neutrality to CO2-eq reduction and make an effort to measure and quantify scope 1 direct emissions properly. A tax on N2O emissions should be introduced in future policies.

14. Integrating multiple models into computational fluid dynamics for fine three-dimensional simulation of urban waterfront wind environments: A case study in Hangzhou, China

Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 85, October 2022, 104088

Abstract

A comfortable wind environment in urban waterfront area (UWA) is critical to improving the quality of life of surrounding residents and environment sustainability. In this study, the porous media model was combined with the water–air interface exchange model to conduct high-precision three-dimensional (3D) simulation of the ventilation environment at an urban waterfront. The results of this study indicate that the accuracy of the proposed model is as high as 95%. This model can be used to efficiently simulate urban ventilation and pedestrian wind environment comfort at different heights (1.5, 10, and 30 m) in a certain high-density 3D UWA. The order of ventilation potential of different types of urban areas is road space, green space, and river space. In summer, the pedestrian wind environment around the Gongshu section of the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal was discovered to have low comfort at a height of 1.5 m. In winter, the wind comfort of the UWA on both sides of the canal is greatly affected by the direction of incoming wind, showing satisfactory ventilation performance when reaching heights of 10 and 30m. Accurate and efficient 3D simulation of urban ventilation is very helpful for adaptive planning and design of urban wind environment.

15. Parametrization of irregularity of urban morphologies for designing better pedestrian wind environment in high-density cities - A wind tunnel study

Building and Environment, Available online 17 October 2022, 109692

Abstract

Breezeways, formed of roads, low-rise buildings, and other linear open-spaces, are crucial for horizontal urban ventilation. However, their morphologies, which are highly irregular, still lack investigation. This study aims to gain a categorical understanding of how irregular breezeway morphologies affect pedestrian-level wind performance in high-density cities. Firstly, breezeway areas and centerlines were extracted by adopting different definitions of breezeways: Method 1 defining near-ground open-spaces (i.e., non-building and low-rise-building areas) as breezeways; Method 2 defining roads as breezeways. Secondly, multiple parameters were developed to describe irregularity (i.e., fragmentation, angularity, and sinuosity) and permeability of 19 typical urban sites in Hong Kong. Thirdly, regression analysis was conducted to correlate the parameters with wind tunnel data. The results show that in a dense built environment, urban ventilation relies on morphologies of all near-ground open-spaces rather than only roads. The regression analysis reveals a negative correlation between pedestrian-level wind and urban irregularity, where fragmentation has the primary impact due to the variations of building wall surfaces and viscous friction. The regression analysis reveals a positive correlation between pedestrian-level wind and urban permeability, where the newly-defined parameter (i.e., open-space width), which incorporates fragmentation into calculation, achieves higher coefficient of determination than the widely-used parameter (i.e., open-space coverage ratio). The developed regression model, which considers both urban permeability and irregularity, predicts wind speed with a simple mathematical manipulation and a comparable accuracy to models in previous studies. More importantly, it provides applicable spatial information of urban irregularity for design of open-spaces and improvement of urban ventilation.

MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP

1. A novel nanofibrous PAN ultrafiltration membrane embedded with ZIF-8 nanoparticles for effective removal of Congo red, Pb(II), and Cu(II) in industrial wastewater treatment

Chemosphere, Volume 304, October 2022, 135285

Abstract

A novel Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite membrane involving ZIF-8 nanoparticles, named as ZIF-8/PAN membrane, was obtained via electrospinning to remove the Congo red (CR), Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions in industrial wastewaters, during which the adsorption mechanisms were examined in this study. The adsorption efficiency of the electrospun ZIF-8/PAN membrane was as high as 89%, 92% and 76% for CR, Pb(II) and Cu(II), respectively. Comparative analysis showed that ZIF-8 nanoparticles embedded in the ZIF-8/PAN membrane accounted for these enhanced adsorption capabilities. The adsorption behaviors of the ZIF-8 nanoparticles were investigated through experiments and theoretical analysis, and the results unraveled that the adsorption for CR by the ZIF-8 was mainly including electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding and interaction, while those for Pb(II) and Cu(II) were mainly caused by ion-exchange and chemical adsorption. Parametric studies were conducted to optimize the conditions for removing CR, Pb(II), and Cu(II) by ZIF-8 nanoparticles, during which all of pollutants showed different reactions to the solution pH. This work not only develops a novel ZIF-8/PAN composite membrane for effective removals of pollutants, but also reveals the underlying mechanisms of pollutants adsorption in terms of molecular interactions, providing important understandings on fibrous materials design for efficient heavy metals and dyes removals in industrial wastewater treatment.

2. Haze caused by NOx oxidation under restricted residential and industrial activities in a mega city in the south of North China Plain

Chemosphere, Volume 305, October 2022, 135489

Abstract

The formation of secondary aerosol species, including nitrate and sulfate, induces severe haze in the North China Plain. However, despite substantial reductions in anthropogenic pollutants due to severe restriction of residential and industrial activities in 2020 to stop the spread of COVID-19, haze still formed in Zhengzhou. We compared ionic compositions of PM2.5 during the period of the restriction with that immediately before the restriction and in the comparison period in 2019 to investigate the processes that caused the haze. The average concentration of PM2.5 was 83.9 μg m−3 in the restriction period, 241.8 μg m−3 before the restriction, and 94.0 μg m−3 in 2019. Nitrate was the largest contributor to the PM2.5 in all periods, with an average mass fraction of 24%–30%. The average molar concentration of total nitrogen compounds (NOx + nitrate) was 0.89 μmol m−3 in the restriction period, which was much lower than that in the non-restriction periods (1.85–2.74 μmol m−3). In contrast, the concentration of sulfur compounds (SO2 + sulfate) was 0.34–0.39 μmol m−3 in all periods. The conversion rate of NOx to nitrate (NOR) was 0.35 in the restriction period, significantly higher than that before the restriction (0.26) and in 2019 (0.25). NOR was higher with relative humidity in 40–80% in the restriction period than in the other two periods, whereas the conversion rate of SO2 to sulfate did not, indicating nitrate formation was more efficient during the restriction. When O3 occupied more than half of the oxidants (Ox = O3 + NO2), NOR increased rapidly with the ratio of O3 to Ox and was much higher in the daytime than nighttime. Therefore, haze in the restriction period was caused by increased NOx-to-nitrate conversion driven by photochemical reactions.

3. Heavy metal remediation from wastewater using microalgae: Recent advances and future trends

Chemosphere, Volume 305, October 2022, 135375

Abstract

Microalgae-based wastewater treatment has previously been carried out in huge waste stabilization ponds. Microalgae, which can absorb carbon dioxide while reusing nutrients from sewage, has recently emerged as a new trend in the wastewater treatment business. Microalgae farming is thought to be a potential match for the modern world's energy strategy, which emphasizes low-cost and environmentally benign alternatives. Microalgae are being used to treat wastewater and make useful products. Microalgae, for example, is a promising renewable resource for producing biomass from wastewater nutrients because of its quick growth rate, short life span, and high carbon dioxide utilization efficacy. Microalgae-based bioremediation has grown in importance in the treatment of numerous types of wastewater in recent years. This solar-powered wastewater treatment technology has huge potential. However, there are still issues to be resolved in terms of land requirements, as well as the process's ecological feasibility and long-term viability, before these systems can be widely adopted. Due to cost and the need for a faultless downstream process, it is difficult to deploy this technology on a large scale. Other recent breakthroughs in wastewater microalgae farming have been investigated, such as how varied pressures affect microalgae growth and quality, as well as the number of high-value components produced. In this review, the future of this biotechnology has also been examined.

4. Tools for evaluation and prediction of industrial noise sources. Application to a wastewater treatment plant

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 319, 1 October 2022, 115725

Abstract

In recent years, acoustic pollution caused by noise has considerably increased in many countries. Particularly in Spain, the noisiest country in Europe. It is sometimes difficult to predict the noise levels that a new installation or an expansion of industrial equipment will cause in the surroundings. This work introduces a new methodology for the prediction, evaluation, and analysis of industrial noise sources, as well as a novel tool for predicting and categorizing outdoor noise from its measurement at their sources. A Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) has been used to demonstrate the applicability and validity of this methodology. The continuous level of acoustic pressure equivalent has been measured in different points of the plant using an integrating sound level meter. From these values, noise maps have been built to obtain detailed information of the industrial noise generated in the installation. Also, the typical frequency patterns of each type of source have been used for the calculation of source noise apportionments. To achieve this objective, several noise sources have been selected to provide information about their contribution to the industrial noise in the WWTP surrounding area. Finally, predictions have been validated using actual measurements. This methodology is a useful tool to predict personal exposure to noise and the impact on the environment. This information can be used, in particular, to propose mitigation actions.

5. Towards cost-effective total pollution control in Chinese industries

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 320, 15 October 2022, 115744

Abstract

The cost-effectiveness of the command-and-control policy instrument in environmental regulations has been debated for a long time. The aims of this study were to quantify the magnitude of the decline in the cost-effectiveness of the Regional Total Pollution Control (RTPC) policy, which includes mandatory emission reduction goals for each province, and to determine factors affecting it. For this purpose, province-level and technology-specific marginal abatement cost curves were constructed for China's three key industries, that is, thermal power, iron and steel, and cement industries. The results show that the average decline in the cost-effectiveness in these industries based on the implementation of the RTPC policy during the 13th Five Year Plan is ∼2.55%. The magnitude of the decline slightly changes from 1.44% to 3.63% (90th percentile) when different emission reduction allocation strategies are selected for different provinces. The three main factors contributing to the decline in the cost-effectiveness are the strictness of the emission reduction goal, variance of unit abatement cost (UAC) of technology, and matching degree between the UAC and emission reduction goals based on the RTPC. The RTPC causes a relatively slight decline in the cost-effectiveness compared with the competitive market and therefore can be used for future policy design.

6. Environmental impact assessment of post-combustion CO2 capture technologies applied to cement production plants

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 320, 15 October 2022, 115908

Abstract

Decarbonizing the cement manufacturing sector presents an interesting and pressing challenge as it is one of the largest energy consumers in industry (i.e., 7%), emitting considerable amounts of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (i.e., 7%). This paper performs a technical and environmental assessment of decarbonisation of cement production through process modelling and simulation, thermal integration analysis, and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Integration of three post-combustion capture methods for a conventional cement plant with an annual productivity of one million tons and a carbon capture rate of 90% is evaluated in comparison to the reference case without carbon capture and storage (CCS). Mass and energy balances derived from simulations are used for the assessment of three innovative capture systems: reactive gas-liquid absorption using Methyl-Di-Ethanol-Amine, reactive gas-solid adsorption using calcium looping (CaL) technology and membrane separation. For the LCA study, a "cradle-to-gate” approach is carried out using GaBi software, according to the ReCiPe impact assessment method. The general conclusion is that integrating the CCS methods into the cement production process leads to a decrease in global warming potential (GWP) in the range of 69.91%–76.74%. Of the CCS technologies analysed, CaL technically outperforms the others as it requires 34% less coal and provides 1.6 times higher gross energy efficiency. From an environmental perspective, CaL integration ranks first, with the lowest scores in six of the nine impact categories and a GWP reduction of 76.74% compared to the baseline scenario without CCS.

7. Emission trading scheme, technological innovation, and competitiveness: Evidence from China's thermal power enterprise

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 320, 15 October 2022, 115874

Abstract

As flagship climate policy instruments, emission trading schemes (ETSs) are spreading, accelerating and strengthening globally. This study aims to explore whether the Porter hypothesis is present in China's ETS. Using the most recent data from 351 thermal power enterprises, the proposed agent-based model (ABM) creates a virtual decision-making and trading mechanism to identify ETS policy effects on enterprise technological innovation and competitiveness. Numerous findings and managerial insights emerge from the results. First, the weak Porter hypothesis cannot be realized in the early stages of China's ETS. However, when carbon price rises to 50–60 yuan/ton, the ETS spurs significant technological innovation. More importantly, the ETS-induced innovation effect is not associated with penalties or subsidies but is driven by allowance allocation and carbon price. Second, enterprise economic performance exhibits an inverted U-shaped trend. Specifically, innovation offsets may enhance enterprises' initial economic performance, while further tightening the allowance may have the opposite effect on competitiveness. Third, enterprise heterogeneity results in polarization, and the group of enterprises that proactively embrace technological innovation earn a higher profit. This work disentangles the dynamic effects of the weak and strong Porter hypotheses and provides empirical references for optimizing ETS design.

8. Organochlorine pesticides in the urban, suburban, agricultural, and industrial soil in South Korea after three decades of ban: Spatial distribution, sources, time trend, and implicated risks

Environmental Pollution, Volume 311, 15 October 2022, 119938

Abstract

Organochlorine pesticides in soil samples across urban, suburban, agricultural, and industrial sites were analyzed every year between 2013 and 2016 in South Korea. The study aims to understand the residual status, diminution of occurrence from the South Korean environment, and its risk to humans after three decades of the ban. A general decreasing trend of OCPs has been observed over the years. The OCP concentrations were below the guideline values prescribed for soil pollution. Metabolites like p,p’-DDD and endosulfan sulfate contributed a major portion to the total OCP concentration over the years. The agricultural sites showed higher OCP levels than other site types. Compositional profile and diagnostic ratios suggested that the occurrence of DDT and endosulfan residues were due to historical inputs, but those of HCH and chlordane reflect recent usage in some pockets. The calculated incremental lifetime cancer risk was within the safety limit for all age groups across the genders in the majority of the sites. It is evident that the OCP load on soil is decreasing since the ban on usage. However, regular monitoring with a special focus on metabolites can be an effective control measure to regulate and eliminate the contamination of OCPs.

9. Decarbonizing the pulp and paper industry: A critical and systematic review of sociotechnical developments and policy options

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 167, October 2022, 112706

Abstract

Paper has shaped society for centuries and is considered one of humanity's most important inventions. However, pulp and paper products can be damaging to social and natural systems along their lifecycle of material extraction, processing, transportation, and waste handling. The pulp and paper industry is among the top five most energy-intensive industries globally and is the fourth largest industrial energy user. This industry accounts for approximately 6% of global industrial energy use and 2% of direct industrial CO2 emissions. The pulp and paper industry is also the largest user of original or virgin wood, with deleterious impacts on both human health and local flora and fauna, including aquatic ecosystems. This critical and systematic review seeks to identify alternatives for mitigating the climate impacts of pulp and paper processes and products, thus making the pulp and paper industry more environmentally sustainable. This study reviews 466 studies to answer the following questions: what are the main determinants of energy and carbon emissions emerging from the pulp and paper industry? What are the benefits of this industry adopting low-carbon manufacturing processes, and what barriers will need to be tackled to enable such adoption? Using a sociotechnical lens, we answer these questions, identify barriers for the pulp and paper industry's decarbonization, and present promising avenues for future research.

10. Environmental impacts of polypropylene (PP) production and prospects of its recycling in the GCC region

Materials Today: Proceedings, Volume 56, Part 4, 2022, Pages 2245-2251

Abstract

Undoubtedly, plastic products are widely used by nearly everyone, either in plastic bags, bottles, household items, and many others. Hence, plastic products are replacing almost all other items, and as a result, they are causing environmental hazards as well. Polypropylene (PP) is a common plastic used to create end goods for customers, such as plastic packaging, and it accounts for 16 % of the entire plastics industry. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) has emerged as a global exporter of petrochemical products, including chemicals, consumer care products, pharmaceuticals, automobiles, textiles, and agricultural products in the past few years. This has led to the growing demand for PP production and raises the environmental concerns associated with PP waste. In this work, the life cycle assessment (LCA) studies are consolidated to analyze the environmental impacts related to PP production and waste. Furthermore, several options of utilizing plastic waste have been presented and discussed from the environmental perspectives and for the GCC region.

11. A Two-stage strategy for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by continuous Biohydrogen fermenter and sequencing batch reactor from food industry wastewater

Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Volume 53, Part A, October 2022, 102445

Abstract

The present investigation aimed to enhance the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). The volatile fatty acid (VFA) was obtained from food industry wastewater using a high-yield VFA extraction system. The experimentation was conducted in two stages: continuous production of VFA and batch production of PHB. During the VFA production, the optimal VFA yield was determined at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) and high chemical oxidation demand (COD). To find the highest PHB production yield, the level of glycerin, ammonia nitrogen, and substrate inoculation in the batch PHB production stage was recorded. At 35 °C and 150 rpm, the wastewater substrate was mixed with urea to achieve an ammonia nitrogen concentration of 2 g/L. The mixed microorganisms were employed to produce PHB. Results revealed that the volatile solids had a PHB yield of 40% (g PHB/g VSS), while the volatile solids (VSS) had 6,900 mg/L. The effluent from the acidification tank can effectively generate PHB to produce VFAs from waste sewage and food industry wastewater. Using various kinds of wastewaters to generate value-added products is an excellent approach to bioenergy generation.

12. Do state-owned enterprises really have better environmental performance in China? Environmental regulation and corporate environmental strategies

Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 185, October 2022, 106500

Abstract

Although state-owned enterprises (SOEs) have long been criticized for being inefficient, they play a vital role in realizing social welfare including the improvement of environmental quality. SOEs are controlled by governments, so the motivations and strategies of SOEs to improve corporate environmental performance are distinct from their privately-owned counterparts. In this article, we propose that a unique strategy adopted by SOEs for improving environmental performance is high responsiveness to the government's goal. Using a unique and detailed firm-level dataset, we find that SOEs perform better for the pollutant assessed by government targets while they perform similarly for the unregulated pollutant compared with their privately-owned counterparts, indicating that they are more responsive and accountable for meeting policy requirements. We further find that SOEs worsen their environmental performance after the privatization, which is consistent with the main results. With the privatization of SOEs worldwide, determining how to avoid the negative effects of privatization as well as to motivate for-profit enterprises to improve corporate environmental performance is the key to achieving a win-win.

13. Hazard identification, risk assessment and management of industrial system: Process safety in mining industry

Safety Science, Volume 154, October 2022, 105863

Abstract

Hazard identification, risk assessment and management are of great significance for the safe and efficient production of industrial system. However, due to the lack of quantitative methods, the production of industrial systems still lacks safety guarantees. Firstly, we revise the accident causation model of mining industry based on the "Swiss-Cheese” model and construct a three-dimensional multi-granular structure model applied to the mining industry. To identify hazards of mining industry, a multi-layer hierarchical structure model and a system safety assessment model are established according to finite covering theorem. Then, the hazard identification is carried out based on the multi-layer hierarchical model and the risk matrix method, and a quantitative method is proposed to calculate the process indicators. Subsequently, the weighted grey relational analysis method is used for risk assessment on the driving system in mining industry. To improve the safety level of the driving system, the Hazard Identification-Assessment-Check-Action risk closed-loop management mode is used for risk management in the purpose of obtaining hazard rectification measures. Risk assessment is carried out again after risk rectification, and the safety level of the driving system can reach higher level. This research can provide guidance for the process safety improvement of industrial systems.

14. Environmental regulation, green innovation, and export product quality: What is the role of greenwashing?

International Review of Financial Analysis, Volume 83, October 2022, 102311

Abstract

To facilitate sustainable growth, green innovation, and industrial upgrading, it is important to explore the relationship between environmental regulations and firm performance. Green innovation is increasingly being recognized as an important determinant of the quality of export products, which plays a critical role in international business and finance. Therefore, this paper empirically examines the impact of green innovation on export product quality at the firm level using relevant data from Chinese exporters. First, we identify a positive relationship between green innovation and export product quality. Second, environmental regulations are observed to have a negative effect on green innovation for highly-polluting firms but do not significantly impact those with lower levels of pollution. Third, our research reveals that the negative effects only exist in those highly-polluting firms that exhibit greenwashing behavior, with financial constraints strengthening these impacts. Therefore, this study reveals that the greenwashing suppression effect curbs the efficiency of environmental regulations on green innovation.

15. The impact of environmental regulation on firms’ energy-environment efficiency: Concurrent discussion of policy tool heterogeneity

Ecological Indicators, Volume 143, October 2022, 109327

Abstract

Energy-environment efficiency can be used as a means of control to change the mode of economic development by considering the pollution reduction factor. Taking China as an example, this study uses a nonradial superefficiency data envelopment analysis method to measure microlevel energy-environment efficiency and investigates the relationship between environmental regulation and efficiency. The findings show that for every 1% increase in environmental regulation, firms’ energy-environment efficiency increases by approximately 0.04% and that environmental regulations have a greater impact on pollution-intensive firms and private firms compared to other types of firms. A median effect model shows that end treatment and source control are important channels through which environmental regulation can improve firms’ energy-environment efficiency. In addition, the influence of different environmental regulation policy tools on firm energy-environment efficiency is heterogeneous. With every 1% increase in a command-and-control and market-based incentive policy, energy-environment efficiency increases by 0.01–0.02%, while the effect of public participation policy tools is not significant. This study provides not only new micro empirical evidence for evaluating the effect of environmental regulation but also a reference for applying and coordinating different types of environmental policy tools.

16. Emerging challenges for the agro-industrial food waste utilization: A review on food waste biorefinery

Bioresource Technology, Volume 362, October 2022, 127790

Abstract

Modernization and industrialization has undoubtedly revolutionized the food and agro-industrial sector leading to the drastic increase in their productivity and marketing thereby accelerating the amount of agro-industrial food waste generated. In the past few decades the potential of these agro-industrial food waste to serve as bio refineries for the extraction of commercially viable products like organic acids, biochemical and biofuels was largely discussed and explored over the conventional method of disposing in landfills. The sustainable development of such strategies largely depends on understanding the techno economic challenges and planning for future strategies to overcome these hurdles. This review work presents a comprehensive outlook on the complex nature of agro-industrial food waste and pretreatment methods for their valorization into commercially viable products along with the challenges in the commercialization of food waste bio refineries that need critical attention to popularize the concept of circular bio economy.

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